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Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

Zinicola M, Lima F, Lima S, Machado V, Gomez M, Döpfer D, Guard C, Bicalho R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi.Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis.Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative) and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative) are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Linear correlation matrix illustrating the associations among all Treponema species that were highly associated with digital dermatitis.Linear correlation line (red line) and respective 95% C.I. (shaded red) as well as correlation coefficients for each association (upper left corner) are provided. A nonparametric density contour was used to illustrate how healthy (red dots), inactive (green dots), and active digital dermatitis (blue dots) samples are concentrated on each graph.
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pone.0120504.g010: Linear correlation matrix illustrating the associations among all Treponema species that were highly associated with digital dermatitis.Linear correlation line (red line) and respective 95% C.I. (shaded red) as well as correlation coefficients for each association (upper left corner) are provided. A nonparametric density contour was used to illustrate how healthy (red dots), inactive (green dots), and active digital dermatitis (blue dots) samples are concentrated on each graph.

Mentions: A linear correlation matrix analysis was performed to illustrate the correlation among all Treponema spp. that were found to be highly associated with active DD lesions (Fig. 10). Correlation coefficients above r = 0.32 were found for all bacteria evaluated. T. paraluiscuniculi was highly associated with T. medium (r = 0.74) and T. maltophilum (r = 0.60). T. maltophilum was also highly associated with T. medium (r = 0.60) and T. putidum (r = 0.63). T. denticola was highly associated with T. putidum (r = 0.60). T. paraluiscuniculi had correlation coefficients greater than r = 0.50 with the other Treponema spp. (Fig. 10).


Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

Zinicola M, Lima F, Lima S, Machado V, Gomez M, Döpfer D, Guard C, Bicalho R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Linear correlation matrix illustrating the associations among all Treponema species that were highly associated with digital dermatitis.Linear correlation line (red line) and respective 95% C.I. (shaded red) as well as correlation coefficients for each association (upper left corner) are provided. A nonparametric density contour was used to illustrate how healthy (red dots), inactive (green dots), and active digital dermatitis (blue dots) samples are concentrated on each graph.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362943&req=5

pone.0120504.g010: Linear correlation matrix illustrating the associations among all Treponema species that were highly associated with digital dermatitis.Linear correlation line (red line) and respective 95% C.I. (shaded red) as well as correlation coefficients for each association (upper left corner) are provided. A nonparametric density contour was used to illustrate how healthy (red dots), inactive (green dots), and active digital dermatitis (blue dots) samples are concentrated on each graph.
Mentions: A linear correlation matrix analysis was performed to illustrate the correlation among all Treponema spp. that were found to be highly associated with active DD lesions (Fig. 10). Correlation coefficients above r = 0.32 were found for all bacteria evaluated. T. paraluiscuniculi was highly associated with T. medium (r = 0.74) and T. maltophilum (r = 0.60). T. maltophilum was also highly associated with T. medium (r = 0.60) and T. putidum (r = 0.63). T. denticola was highly associated with T. putidum (r = 0.60). T. paraluiscuniculi had correlation coefficients greater than r = 0.50 with the other Treponema spp. (Fig. 10).

Bottom Line: In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi.Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis.Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative) and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative) are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus