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Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

Zinicola M, Lima F, Lima S, Machado V, Gomez M, Döpfer D, Guard C, Bicalho R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi.Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis.Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative) and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative) are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage increase of bacterial types from healthy skin samples to active digital dermatitis lesions.The Y axis represents the robust LogWorth of the false discovery rate and the X axis represents the percentage increase in relative abundance when comparing healthy skin samples to active digital dermatitis lesions. The sizes of the circles represent the effect size and the colors represent the relative abundance of each individual bacterial type in active digital dermatitis lesions (color legend upper right corner). Green line represents P < 0.00005.
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pone.0120504.g006: Percentage increase of bacterial types from healthy skin samples to active digital dermatitis lesions.The Y axis represents the robust LogWorth of the false discovery rate and the X axis represents the percentage increase in relative abundance when comparing healthy skin samples to active digital dermatitis lesions. The sizes of the circles represent the effect size and the colors represent the relative abundance of each individual bacterial type in active digital dermatitis lesions (color legend upper right corner). Green line represents P < 0.00005.

Mentions: In an attempt to identify the major microbial types distinguishing the microbiomes of healthy skin, inactive DD and active DD lesions, a series of screening analyses was performed. The results of the screening analysis indicated a markedly increased relative abundance of a consortium of Treponema spp., specifically T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. paraluiscuniculi, T. phagedenis, and T. putidum, in active DD lesions compared with healthy skin (Fig. 6). Among all the microbes important for differentiating active DD lesions from healthy skin samples, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, never reported previously in DD lesions, had the highest relative abundance (Fig. 6). Likewise, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. paraluiscuniculi, T. phagedenis and T. putidum had increased relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with inactive DD lesions (Fig. 7). The bacteria Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, Porphyromonas levii, Phorphyromonas somerae, Propionispora hippie, and Tematospirillum siberense were increased in inactive DD lesions when compared with healthy skin samples (Fig. 8). The percentage reductions of the major microbial types in comparisons of active lesions versus healthy skin, inactive lesions versus healthy skin, and active lesions versus inactive lesions are given in S5, S6 and S7 Figs., respectively.


Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

Zinicola M, Lima F, Lima S, Machado V, Gomez M, Döpfer D, Guard C, Bicalho R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Percentage increase of bacterial types from healthy skin samples to active digital dermatitis lesions.The Y axis represents the robust LogWorth of the false discovery rate and the X axis represents the percentage increase in relative abundance when comparing healthy skin samples to active digital dermatitis lesions. The sizes of the circles represent the effect size and the colors represent the relative abundance of each individual bacterial type in active digital dermatitis lesions (color legend upper right corner). Green line represents P < 0.00005.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362943&req=5

pone.0120504.g006: Percentage increase of bacterial types from healthy skin samples to active digital dermatitis lesions.The Y axis represents the robust LogWorth of the false discovery rate and the X axis represents the percentage increase in relative abundance when comparing healthy skin samples to active digital dermatitis lesions. The sizes of the circles represent the effect size and the colors represent the relative abundance of each individual bacterial type in active digital dermatitis lesions (color legend upper right corner). Green line represents P < 0.00005.
Mentions: In an attempt to identify the major microbial types distinguishing the microbiomes of healthy skin, inactive DD and active DD lesions, a series of screening analyses was performed. The results of the screening analysis indicated a markedly increased relative abundance of a consortium of Treponema spp., specifically T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. paraluiscuniculi, T. phagedenis, and T. putidum, in active DD lesions compared with healthy skin (Fig. 6). Among all the microbes important for differentiating active DD lesions from healthy skin samples, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, never reported previously in DD lesions, had the highest relative abundance (Fig. 6). Likewise, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. paraluiscuniculi, T. phagedenis and T. putidum had increased relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with inactive DD lesions (Fig. 7). The bacteria Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, Porphyromonas levii, Phorphyromonas somerae, Propionispora hippie, and Tematospirillum siberense were increased in inactive DD lesions when compared with healthy skin samples (Fig. 8). The percentage reductions of the major microbial types in comparisons of active lesions versus healthy skin, inactive lesions versus healthy skin, and active lesions versus inactive lesions are given in S5, S6 and S7 Figs., respectively.

Bottom Line: In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi.Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis.Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative) and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative) are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus