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Development of TAP, a non-invasive test for qualitative and quantitative measurements of biomarkers from the skin surface.

Orro K, Smirnova O, Arshavskaja J, Salk K, Meikas A, Pihelgas S, Rumvolt R, Kingo K, Kazarjan A, Neuman T, Spee P - Biomark Res (2014)

Bottom Line: The aim of the present study was to develop a highly versatile and non-invasive diagnostic tool for multiplex measurements of protein biomarkers from the surface of skin.Optimisation of protocols for TAP production and biomarker analyses makes TAP measurements highly specific and reproducible.In measurements of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and human β-defensin (hBD-1) from healthy skin, TAP appears far more sensitive than skin lavage-based methods using ELISA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FibroTx LLC, Mäealuse 4, 12918 Tallinn, Estonia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The skin proteome contains valuable information on skin condition, but also on how skin may evolve in time and may respond to treatments. Despite the potential of measuring regulatory-, effector- and structural proteins in the skin for biomarker applications in clinical dermatology and skin care, convenient diagnostic tools are lacking. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly versatile and non-invasive diagnostic tool for multiplex measurements of protein biomarkers from the surface of skin.

Results: The Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP) is a novel molecular diagnostic tool that has been developed to capture biomarkers directly from skin, which are quantitatively analyzed in spot-ELISA assays. Optimisation of protocols for TAP production and biomarker analyses makes TAP measurements highly specific and reproducible. In measurements of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and human β-defensin (hBD-1) from healthy skin, TAP appears far more sensitive than skin lavage-based methods using ELISA. No side-effects were observed using TAP on human skin.

Conclusion: TAP is a practical and valuable new skin diagnostic tool for measuring protein-based biomarkers from skin, which is convenient to use for operators, with minimal burden for patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP). Panel A: TAP consists of a plaster with a nitrocellulose core that contains the capture antibody micro-array, which is clearly visible in the middle. Panel B: In the lower photo, TAP has been fixed to skin. In the upper photo, it is clearly visible that the layer in between the micro-array and the adhesive layer expands upon contact with fluid. This layer serves as a reservoir for the buffer used for biomarker extraction from skin, as well as to ensure close contact between capture antibody micro-array and skin during extraction.
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Fig1: The Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP). Panel A: TAP consists of a plaster with a nitrocellulose core that contains the capture antibody micro-array, which is clearly visible in the middle. Panel B: In the lower photo, TAP has been fixed to skin. In the upper photo, it is clearly visible that the layer in between the micro-array and the adhesive layer expands upon contact with fluid. This layer serves as a reservoir for the buffer used for biomarker extraction from skin, as well as to ensure close contact between capture antibody micro-array and skin during extraction.

Mentions: For the selective capturing of soluble proteins directly from skin, we have developed a so-called Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP), consisting of a micro-array, which is supported by a dermal adhesive plaster for easy fixture to skin (see Figure 1A). TAP micro-arrays contain a panel of capturing antibodies, of which each antibody variant is printed, in multitude, as discrete spots on nitrocellulose by non-contact dispensing. In addition, each TAP micro-array contains a multitude of spots each printed with positive controls (IgG) or negative controls (irrelevant IgG of printer buffer) to determine the specificity of biomarker measurements. In between the antibody micro-array and the plaster, a layer is positioned that serves as a fluid reservoir for the buffer needed for protein capturing from skin. In addition, this expandable layer serves as a pressure pad to ensure close contact of the micro-array to the skin (see Figure 1B). Captured proteins are analyzed, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on the antibody micro-array using spot-ELISA.Figure 1


Development of TAP, a non-invasive test for qualitative and quantitative measurements of biomarkers from the skin surface.

Orro K, Smirnova O, Arshavskaja J, Salk K, Meikas A, Pihelgas S, Rumvolt R, Kingo K, Kazarjan A, Neuman T, Spee P - Biomark Res (2014)

The Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP). Panel A: TAP consists of a plaster with a nitrocellulose core that contains the capture antibody micro-array, which is clearly visible in the middle. Panel B: In the lower photo, TAP has been fixed to skin. In the upper photo, it is clearly visible that the layer in between the micro-array and the adhesive layer expands upon contact with fluid. This layer serves as a reservoir for the buffer used for biomarker extraction from skin, as well as to ensure close contact between capture antibody micro-array and skin during extraction.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362816&req=5

Fig1: The Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP). Panel A: TAP consists of a plaster with a nitrocellulose core that contains the capture antibody micro-array, which is clearly visible in the middle. Panel B: In the lower photo, TAP has been fixed to skin. In the upper photo, it is clearly visible that the layer in between the micro-array and the adhesive layer expands upon contact with fluid. This layer serves as a reservoir for the buffer used for biomarker extraction from skin, as well as to ensure close contact between capture antibody micro-array and skin during extraction.
Mentions: For the selective capturing of soluble proteins directly from skin, we have developed a so-called Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP), consisting of a micro-array, which is supported by a dermal adhesive plaster for easy fixture to skin (see Figure 1A). TAP micro-arrays contain a panel of capturing antibodies, of which each antibody variant is printed, in multitude, as discrete spots on nitrocellulose by non-contact dispensing. In addition, each TAP micro-array contains a multitude of spots each printed with positive controls (IgG) or negative controls (irrelevant IgG of printer buffer) to determine the specificity of biomarker measurements. In between the antibody micro-array and the plaster, a layer is positioned that serves as a fluid reservoir for the buffer needed for protein capturing from skin. In addition, this expandable layer serves as a pressure pad to ensure close contact of the micro-array to the skin (see Figure 1B). Captured proteins are analyzed, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on the antibody micro-array using spot-ELISA.Figure 1

Bottom Line: The aim of the present study was to develop a highly versatile and non-invasive diagnostic tool for multiplex measurements of protein biomarkers from the surface of skin.Optimisation of protocols for TAP production and biomarker analyses makes TAP measurements highly specific and reproducible.In measurements of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and human β-defensin (hBD-1) from healthy skin, TAP appears far more sensitive than skin lavage-based methods using ELISA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FibroTx LLC, Mäealuse 4, 12918 Tallinn, Estonia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The skin proteome contains valuable information on skin condition, but also on how skin may evolve in time and may respond to treatments. Despite the potential of measuring regulatory-, effector- and structural proteins in the skin for biomarker applications in clinical dermatology and skin care, convenient diagnostic tools are lacking. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly versatile and non-invasive diagnostic tool for multiplex measurements of protein biomarkers from the surface of skin.

Results: The Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP) is a novel molecular diagnostic tool that has been developed to capture biomarkers directly from skin, which are quantitatively analyzed in spot-ELISA assays. Optimisation of protocols for TAP production and biomarker analyses makes TAP measurements highly specific and reproducible. In measurements of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and human β-defensin (hBD-1) from healthy skin, TAP appears far more sensitive than skin lavage-based methods using ELISA. No side-effects were observed using TAP on human skin.

Conclusion: TAP is a practical and valuable new skin diagnostic tool for measuring protein-based biomarkers from skin, which is convenient to use for operators, with minimal burden for patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus