Limits...
Adenovirus and herpesvirus diversity in free-ranging great apes in the Sangha region of the Republic Of Congo.

Seimon TA, Olson SH, Lee KJ, Rosen G, Ondzie A, Cameron K, Reed P, Anthony SJ, Joly DO, McAloose D, Lipkin WI - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees.Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals.These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoological Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America; Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Viral co-detection in chimpanzee and gorilla fecal samples.A. Graph depicting the type and number of viruses detected in fecal samples from individual great apes. Gorillas are highlighted in green and chimpanzees are highlighted in blue. B. Matrix analysis showing all 19 detected viruses or viral groups and the number of pair-wise combinations with each other. On the left side of the matrix is a heat map showing the number of individuals positive for co-detection of two viruses as is indicated in the red color key. For example, feces from 12 individuals, highlighted in maroon (>8 samples detected with that virus combination), were positive for both GgorLCV1 and SAdVGroupOKNP. The upper right half of the matrix (mirror image of lower left) are the number of individuals that tested positive for co-detection, with colors indicating which species, or if both were affected.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362762&req=5

pone.0118543.g003: Viral co-detection in chimpanzee and gorilla fecal samples.A. Graph depicting the type and number of viruses detected in fecal samples from individual great apes. Gorillas are highlighted in green and chimpanzees are highlighted in blue. B. Matrix analysis showing all 19 detected viruses or viral groups and the number of pair-wise combinations with each other. On the left side of the matrix is a heat map showing the number of individuals positive for co-detection of two viruses as is indicated in the red color key. For example, feces from 12 individuals, highlighted in maroon (>8 samples detected with that virus combination), were positive for both GgorLCV1 and SAdVGroupOKNP. The upper right half of the matrix (mirror image of lower left) are the number of individuals that tested positive for co-detection, with colors indicating which species, or if both were affected.

Mentions: Multiple viral sequences were detected in feces from 31.4% (50/159) of individuals. 27.9% (38/136) of the gorilla and 52.2% (12/23) of the chimpanzee fecal samples contained more than one virus. The distribution of positive results per individual, ranked from one to five viruses found, is shown in Fig. 3A. The data from two positive individuals that were resampled are presented in S1 Table. The remaining third individual (WDG93 and WDG95) was negative for all viruses tested. Matrix analysis comparing the presence of each of the 19 different viruses detected within individuals was performed (Fig. 3B). In individuals positive for more than one virus, GgorLCV1 and SAdVGroupOKNP was the most common virus combination detected (Fig. 3B, dark maroon cell). In the 12 individuals positive for both of these viruses, one was from a chimpanzee and 11 were from gorillas (S1 Table). SAdVGroup 27.1/28.2/29/46/47 and SAdVGroupOKNP virus combinations were also relatively common and found in 10 gorillas. Other combinations of viruses were also seen. 94.7% (18/19) of the CMV-positive individuals and 84.6% (33/39) of the LCV-positive fecal samples from individual apes contained another adenovirus or herpesvirus (S1 Table). LCV’s were found in combination with all 19 detected virus or viral groups. Overall, co-detection of HAdV-B or LCV was found in 52.6% (10/19) or 89.5% (17/19) respectively of the CMV-positive individuals.


Adenovirus and herpesvirus diversity in free-ranging great apes in the Sangha region of the Republic Of Congo.

Seimon TA, Olson SH, Lee KJ, Rosen G, Ondzie A, Cameron K, Reed P, Anthony SJ, Joly DO, McAloose D, Lipkin WI - PLoS ONE (2015)

Viral co-detection in chimpanzee and gorilla fecal samples.A. Graph depicting the type and number of viruses detected in fecal samples from individual great apes. Gorillas are highlighted in green and chimpanzees are highlighted in blue. B. Matrix analysis showing all 19 detected viruses or viral groups and the number of pair-wise combinations with each other. On the left side of the matrix is a heat map showing the number of individuals positive for co-detection of two viruses as is indicated in the red color key. For example, feces from 12 individuals, highlighted in maroon (>8 samples detected with that virus combination), were positive for both GgorLCV1 and SAdVGroupOKNP. The upper right half of the matrix (mirror image of lower left) are the number of individuals that tested positive for co-detection, with colors indicating which species, or if both were affected.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362762&req=5

pone.0118543.g003: Viral co-detection in chimpanzee and gorilla fecal samples.A. Graph depicting the type and number of viruses detected in fecal samples from individual great apes. Gorillas are highlighted in green and chimpanzees are highlighted in blue. B. Matrix analysis showing all 19 detected viruses or viral groups and the number of pair-wise combinations with each other. On the left side of the matrix is a heat map showing the number of individuals positive for co-detection of two viruses as is indicated in the red color key. For example, feces from 12 individuals, highlighted in maroon (>8 samples detected with that virus combination), were positive for both GgorLCV1 and SAdVGroupOKNP. The upper right half of the matrix (mirror image of lower left) are the number of individuals that tested positive for co-detection, with colors indicating which species, or if both were affected.
Mentions: Multiple viral sequences were detected in feces from 31.4% (50/159) of individuals. 27.9% (38/136) of the gorilla and 52.2% (12/23) of the chimpanzee fecal samples contained more than one virus. The distribution of positive results per individual, ranked from one to five viruses found, is shown in Fig. 3A. The data from two positive individuals that were resampled are presented in S1 Table. The remaining third individual (WDG93 and WDG95) was negative for all viruses tested. Matrix analysis comparing the presence of each of the 19 different viruses detected within individuals was performed (Fig. 3B). In individuals positive for more than one virus, GgorLCV1 and SAdVGroupOKNP was the most common virus combination detected (Fig. 3B, dark maroon cell). In the 12 individuals positive for both of these viruses, one was from a chimpanzee and 11 were from gorillas (S1 Table). SAdVGroup 27.1/28.2/29/46/47 and SAdVGroupOKNP virus combinations were also relatively common and found in 10 gorillas. Other combinations of viruses were also seen. 94.7% (18/19) of the CMV-positive individuals and 84.6% (33/39) of the LCV-positive fecal samples from individual apes contained another adenovirus or herpesvirus (S1 Table). LCV’s were found in combination with all 19 detected virus or viral groups. Overall, co-detection of HAdV-B or LCV was found in 52.6% (10/19) or 89.5% (17/19) respectively of the CMV-positive individuals.

Bottom Line: Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees.Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals.These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoological Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America; Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus