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Adenovirus and herpesvirus diversity in free-ranging great apes in the Sangha region of the Republic Of Congo.

Seimon TA, Olson SH, Lee KJ, Rosen G, Ondzie A, Cameron K, Reed P, Anthony SJ, Joly DO, McAloose D, Lipkin WI - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees.Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals.These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoological Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America; Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of sites and phylogenetic tree of herpesvirus lineages found in gorillas and chimpanzees.A. Map of the Republic of Congo showing the location of Odzala-Kokoua National Park (arrow) and the study area (yellow box). B. Shows the 12 sites where the samples were collected. Blue dots show where each sample was collected and the crosses show the extent of the survey sites. C. Phylogenetic tree of betaherpesviruses found in gorillas and chimpanzees. The tree was constructed through a nucleotide alignment of the herpesvirus CMV glycoprotein B gene using Bayesian analysis. Sample identification (WDG number) and Genbank accession numbers are shown. Bayesian posterior probabilities of branching demonstrate the robustness of the individual groups. Tupaiid herpesvirus 1 was used as the outgroup.
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pone.0118543.g001: Location of sites and phylogenetic tree of herpesvirus lineages found in gorillas and chimpanzees.A. Map of the Republic of Congo showing the location of Odzala-Kokoua National Park (arrow) and the study area (yellow box). B. Shows the 12 sites where the samples were collected. Blue dots show where each sample was collected and the crosses show the extent of the survey sites. C. Phylogenetic tree of betaherpesviruses found in gorillas and chimpanzees. The tree was constructed through a nucleotide alignment of the herpesvirus CMV glycoprotein B gene using Bayesian analysis. Sample identification (WDG number) and Genbank accession numbers are shown. Bayesian posterior probabilities of branching demonstrate the robustness of the individual groups. Tupaiid herpesvirus 1 was used as the outgroup.

Mentions: Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.


Adenovirus and herpesvirus diversity in free-ranging great apes in the Sangha region of the Republic Of Congo.

Seimon TA, Olson SH, Lee KJ, Rosen G, Ondzie A, Cameron K, Reed P, Anthony SJ, Joly DO, McAloose D, Lipkin WI - PLoS ONE (2015)

Location of sites and phylogenetic tree of herpesvirus lineages found in gorillas and chimpanzees.A. Map of the Republic of Congo showing the location of Odzala-Kokoua National Park (arrow) and the study area (yellow box). B. Shows the 12 sites where the samples were collected. Blue dots show where each sample was collected and the crosses show the extent of the survey sites. C. Phylogenetic tree of betaherpesviruses found in gorillas and chimpanzees. The tree was constructed through a nucleotide alignment of the herpesvirus CMV glycoprotein B gene using Bayesian analysis. Sample identification (WDG number) and Genbank accession numbers are shown. Bayesian posterior probabilities of branching demonstrate the robustness of the individual groups. Tupaiid herpesvirus 1 was used as the outgroup.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362762&req=5

pone.0118543.g001: Location of sites and phylogenetic tree of herpesvirus lineages found in gorillas and chimpanzees.A. Map of the Republic of Congo showing the location of Odzala-Kokoua National Park (arrow) and the study area (yellow box). B. Shows the 12 sites where the samples were collected. Blue dots show where each sample was collected and the crosses show the extent of the survey sites. C. Phylogenetic tree of betaherpesviruses found in gorillas and chimpanzees. The tree was constructed through a nucleotide alignment of the herpesvirus CMV glycoprotein B gene using Bayesian analysis. Sample identification (WDG number) and Genbank accession numbers are shown. Bayesian posterior probabilities of branching demonstrate the robustness of the individual groups. Tupaiid herpesvirus 1 was used as the outgroup.
Mentions: Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

Bottom Line: Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees.Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals.These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoological Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America; Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus