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Neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma.

Song W, Huang P, Zhang C - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease.Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON.Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness worldwide. It is mainly caused by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss, which leads to visual field defect and blindness. Up to now, the main purpose of antiglaucomatous therapies has been to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) through surgeries and medications. However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease. Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON. Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Overactivation of microglia around optic nerve head.Notes: Overactivation of microglia leads to excessive production of toxic materials surrounding RGCs, including TNF-α and NO. The binding between TNF-α and TNFR initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, while the interaction between NO and ROS results in production of OONO− followed by cell death.Abbreviations: RGC, retinal ganglion cell; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFR, tumor necrosis factor receptor; NO, nitric oxide; ROS, reactive oxygen species.
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f5-dddt-9-1469: Overactivation of microglia around optic nerve head.Notes: Overactivation of microglia leads to excessive production of toxic materials surrounding RGCs, including TNF-α and NO. The binding between TNF-α and TNFR initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, while the interaction between NO and ROS results in production of OONO− followed by cell death.Abbreviations: RGC, retinal ganglion cell; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFR, tumor necrosis factor receptor; NO, nitric oxide; ROS, reactive oxygen species.

Mentions: Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as macrophages throughout the central nervous system. Microglial activation facilitates injured nerve rehabilitation by clearance of toxic components such as foreign materials, neurofibrillary tangles, DNA fragments, etc.69 Neufeld detected overacti-vated microglia present in the optic nerve head and lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous human eyes.65 Overactivation of microglia leads to excessive production of toxic materials surrounding RGCs, including TNF-α, NO, and ROS (Figure 5). Hence, interventions in microglia overactivation may be useful to enhance survival of RGCs in treating glaucoma.


Neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma.

Song W, Huang P, Zhang C - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Overactivation of microglia around optic nerve head.Notes: Overactivation of microglia leads to excessive production of toxic materials surrounding RGCs, including TNF-α and NO. The binding between TNF-α and TNFR initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, while the interaction between NO and ROS results in production of OONO− followed by cell death.Abbreviations: RGC, retinal ganglion cell; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFR, tumor necrosis factor receptor; NO, nitric oxide; ROS, reactive oxygen species.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362661&req=5

f5-dddt-9-1469: Overactivation of microglia around optic nerve head.Notes: Overactivation of microglia leads to excessive production of toxic materials surrounding RGCs, including TNF-α and NO. The binding between TNF-α and TNFR initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, while the interaction between NO and ROS results in production of OONO− followed by cell death.Abbreviations: RGC, retinal ganglion cell; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFR, tumor necrosis factor receptor; NO, nitric oxide; ROS, reactive oxygen species.
Mentions: Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as macrophages throughout the central nervous system. Microglial activation facilitates injured nerve rehabilitation by clearance of toxic components such as foreign materials, neurofibrillary tangles, DNA fragments, etc.69 Neufeld detected overacti-vated microglia present in the optic nerve head and lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous human eyes.65 Overactivation of microglia leads to excessive production of toxic materials surrounding RGCs, including TNF-α, NO, and ROS (Figure 5). Hence, interventions in microglia overactivation may be useful to enhance survival of RGCs in treating glaucoma.

Bottom Line: However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease.Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON.Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness worldwide. It is mainly caused by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss, which leads to visual field defect and blindness. Up to now, the main purpose of antiglaucomatous therapies has been to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) through surgeries and medications. However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease. Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON. Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus