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Microscopic examination and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

Keflie TS, Ameni G - Pan Afr Med J (2014)

Bottom Line: The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335).The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low.This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ethiopian Society of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Ethiopia ; Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia ; College of Medicine and Health Sciences of Mada Walabu University, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10.

Results: A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335).

Conclusion: The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission.

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Trend of smear positive and negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Northwestern Shewa between 2002 and 2006
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Figure 0002: Trend of smear positive and negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Northwestern Shewa between 2002 and 2006

Mentions: The distribution of smear positive and smear negative pulmonary TB cases in North Shewa zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia between 2002 and 2007 was analysed. During these periods, 8150 pulmonary TB cases were reported. Of these, 41.10% (3350/8150) was smear positive and 58.9% (4800/8150) was smear negative pulmonary TB. The numbers of smear positive and negative TB cases showed slight fluctuation during these periods of time but their overall trends as indicated in Figure 2 were rising up. The incidence of smear negative TB case was the highest in all years except 2004 (Figure 3). Population age groups between 14 to 34 years were highly affected in the study area between 2002 and 2007. More than 87.3% of TB patients were between 14 to 54 years of age. Similarly, 60.9% (4963/8150) males and 39.1% (3187/8150) females were affected by pulmonary TB during these periods of time in the study area.


Microscopic examination and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

Keflie TS, Ameni G - Pan Afr Med J (2014)

Trend of smear positive and negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Northwestern Shewa between 2002 and 2006
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362622&req=5

Figure 0002: Trend of smear positive and negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Northwestern Shewa between 2002 and 2006
Mentions: The distribution of smear positive and smear negative pulmonary TB cases in North Shewa zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia between 2002 and 2007 was analysed. During these periods, 8150 pulmonary TB cases were reported. Of these, 41.10% (3350/8150) was smear positive and 58.9% (4800/8150) was smear negative pulmonary TB. The numbers of smear positive and negative TB cases showed slight fluctuation during these periods of time but their overall trends as indicated in Figure 2 were rising up. The incidence of smear negative TB case was the highest in all years except 2004 (Figure 3). Population age groups between 14 to 34 years were highly affected in the study area between 2002 and 2007. More than 87.3% of TB patients were between 14 to 54 years of age. Similarly, 60.9% (4963/8150) males and 39.1% (3187/8150) females were affected by pulmonary TB during these periods of time in the study area.

Bottom Line: The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335).The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low.This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ethiopian Society of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Ethiopia ; Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia ; College of Medicine and Health Sciences of Mada Walabu University, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10.

Results: A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335).

Conclusion: The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus