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Is it time to turn our attention toward central mechanisms for post-exertional recovery strategies and performance?

Rattray B, Argus C, Martin K, Northey J, Driller M - Front Physiol (2015)

Bottom Line: In this narrative review we assemble evidence for the role that many currently utilized recovery strategies may have on the brain, as well as potential mechanisms for their action.We aim to highlight the fact that many recovery strategies have been designed with the periphery in mind, and that refinement of current methods are likely to provide improvements in minimizing brain fatigue.Whilst we offer a number of recommendations, it is evident that there are many opportunities for improving the research, and practical guidelines in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Discipline of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra Canberra, ACT, Australia ; University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra Canberra, ACT, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Key PointsCentral fatigue is accepted as a contributor to overall athletic performance, yet little research directly investigates post-exercise recovery strategies targeting the brainCurrent post-exercise recovery strategies likely impact on the brain through a range of mechanisms, but improvements to these strategies is neededResearch is required to optimize post-exercise recovery with a focus on the brain Post-exercise recovery has largely focused on peripheral mechanisms of fatigue, but there is growing acceptance that fatigue is also contributed to through central mechanisms which demands that attention should be paid to optimizing recovery of the brain. In this narrative review we assemble evidence for the role that many currently utilized recovery strategies may have on the brain, as well as potential mechanisms for their action. The review provides discussion of how common nutritional strategies as well as physical modalities and methods to reduce mental fatigue are likely to interact with the brain, and offer an opportunity for subsequent improved performance. We aim to highlight the fact that many recovery strategies have been designed with the periphery in mind, and that refinement of current methods are likely to provide improvements in minimizing brain fatigue. Whilst we offer a number of recommendations, it is evident that there are many opportunities for improving the research, and practical guidelines in this area.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A schematic representation of some of the interactions between a number of recovery strategies (rounded gray boxes) and factors related to brain fatigue. Brain fatigue, manifesting through observations such as reduced muscle drive, changes in mood, reduced decision making or skill execution, or negative changes in motivation or perceived exertion may be overcome through various combinations of recovery strategies. The practical recommendations however remain unclear and will be the subject of future research. Further details in text.
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Figure 1: A schematic representation of some of the interactions between a number of recovery strategies (rounded gray boxes) and factors related to brain fatigue. Brain fatigue, manifesting through observations such as reduced muscle drive, changes in mood, reduced decision making or skill execution, or negative changes in motivation or perceived exertion may be overcome through various combinations of recovery strategies. The practical recommendations however remain unclear and will be the subject of future research. Further details in text.

Mentions: Despite limited direct evidence of optimal recovery strategies for the brain, the current literature provides a number of possibilities for future research. We present a schematic highlighting some of the relationships between recovery strategies and brain fatigue (Figure 1). Whilst not exhaustive, the schematic aims to show the complexity of brain fatigue and the interrelationships involved, as well as areas of stronger and weaker evidence. From this schematic it appears that both carbohydrate and sleep present as the two major strategies to improve brain recovery, but a number of other strategies are also likely to contribute in a positive way. Regardless, the optimal timings, dose and combination with other recovery interventions remain unclear for brain recovery, and will attract future research. Whilst there will be inevitable improvements and discoveries relating to peripheral recovery, we believe that the greatest improvements in exercise recovery are likely to be found in strategies that directly target the brain, and optimize its recovery. Interventions that aim to restore fuel, such as nutritional strategies, as well as sleep are clearly likely to have the largest effect, although little is known on the effect size of any particular recovery strategy on the brain and its role in subsequent performance. Clearly, much more research is required in this area, and recommendations will be refined and changed as it becomes available. We hope that these insights will accelerate findings in this area.


Is it time to turn our attention toward central mechanisms for post-exertional recovery strategies and performance?

Rattray B, Argus C, Martin K, Northey J, Driller M - Front Physiol (2015)

A schematic representation of some of the interactions between a number of recovery strategies (rounded gray boxes) and factors related to brain fatigue. Brain fatigue, manifesting through observations such as reduced muscle drive, changes in mood, reduced decision making or skill execution, or negative changes in motivation or perceived exertion may be overcome through various combinations of recovery strategies. The practical recommendations however remain unclear and will be the subject of future research. Further details in text.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362407&req=5

Figure 1: A schematic representation of some of the interactions between a number of recovery strategies (rounded gray boxes) and factors related to brain fatigue. Brain fatigue, manifesting through observations such as reduced muscle drive, changes in mood, reduced decision making or skill execution, or negative changes in motivation or perceived exertion may be overcome through various combinations of recovery strategies. The practical recommendations however remain unclear and will be the subject of future research. Further details in text.
Mentions: Despite limited direct evidence of optimal recovery strategies for the brain, the current literature provides a number of possibilities for future research. We present a schematic highlighting some of the relationships between recovery strategies and brain fatigue (Figure 1). Whilst not exhaustive, the schematic aims to show the complexity of brain fatigue and the interrelationships involved, as well as areas of stronger and weaker evidence. From this schematic it appears that both carbohydrate and sleep present as the two major strategies to improve brain recovery, but a number of other strategies are also likely to contribute in a positive way. Regardless, the optimal timings, dose and combination with other recovery interventions remain unclear for brain recovery, and will attract future research. Whilst there will be inevitable improvements and discoveries relating to peripheral recovery, we believe that the greatest improvements in exercise recovery are likely to be found in strategies that directly target the brain, and optimize its recovery. Interventions that aim to restore fuel, such as nutritional strategies, as well as sleep are clearly likely to have the largest effect, although little is known on the effect size of any particular recovery strategy on the brain and its role in subsequent performance. Clearly, much more research is required in this area, and recommendations will be refined and changed as it becomes available. We hope that these insights will accelerate findings in this area.

Bottom Line: In this narrative review we assemble evidence for the role that many currently utilized recovery strategies may have on the brain, as well as potential mechanisms for their action.We aim to highlight the fact that many recovery strategies have been designed with the periphery in mind, and that refinement of current methods are likely to provide improvements in minimizing brain fatigue.Whilst we offer a number of recommendations, it is evident that there are many opportunities for improving the research, and practical guidelines in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Discipline of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra Canberra, ACT, Australia ; University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra Canberra, ACT, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Key PointsCentral fatigue is accepted as a contributor to overall athletic performance, yet little research directly investigates post-exercise recovery strategies targeting the brainCurrent post-exercise recovery strategies likely impact on the brain through a range of mechanisms, but improvements to these strategies is neededResearch is required to optimize post-exercise recovery with a focus on the brain Post-exercise recovery has largely focused on peripheral mechanisms of fatigue, but there is growing acceptance that fatigue is also contributed to through central mechanisms which demands that attention should be paid to optimizing recovery of the brain. In this narrative review we assemble evidence for the role that many currently utilized recovery strategies may have on the brain, as well as potential mechanisms for their action. The review provides discussion of how common nutritional strategies as well as physical modalities and methods to reduce mental fatigue are likely to interact with the brain, and offer an opportunity for subsequent improved performance. We aim to highlight the fact that many recovery strategies have been designed with the periphery in mind, and that refinement of current methods are likely to provide improvements in minimizing brain fatigue. Whilst we offer a number of recommendations, it is evident that there are many opportunities for improving the research, and practical guidelines in this area.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus