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Microengineering in cardiovascular research: new developments and translational applications.

Chan JM, Wong KH, Richards AM, Drum CL - Cardiovasc. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: Microfluidic, cellular co-cultures that approximate macro-scale biology are important tools for refining the in vitro study of organ-level function and disease.Here we review applications of these technologies specific to the cardiovascular field, emphasizing three general categories of use: reductionist vascular models, tissue-engineered vascular models, and point-of-care diagnostics.With continued progress in the ability to purposefully control microscale environments, the detailed study of both primary and cultured cells may find new relevance in the general cardiovascular research community.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Microfluidic studies of arterial stenosis. (A) Schematic representation of a 3D microfluidic model of vascular narrowing that mimics a blood vessel with 90% lumen obstruction. (B) A photograph of the PDMS-based device that mimics vascular stenosis. Reproduced with permission from Korin et al.16.
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CVV049F1: Microfluidic studies of arterial stenosis. (A) Schematic representation of a 3D microfluidic model of vascular narrowing that mimics a blood vessel with 90% lumen obstruction. (B) A photograph of the PDMS-based device that mimics vascular stenosis. Reproduced with permission from Korin et al.16.

Mentions: To find commonality between simple cell culture and animal studies, Korin et al.16 designed a 3D model of vascular stenosis that mimics blood vessels with 90% lumen obstruction. They used the microfluidic system to test their shear-activated nano-therapeutics (SA-NTs), which are microparticles (1–5 µm in diameter) that release smaller poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (180 ± 70 nm) in response to shear at stenotic regions (Figure 1A and B). Computational fluid dynamics modelling of flow in the microfluidic device demonstrated that a shear stress of 10 dyn/cm2 upstream from the occlusion resembled fluid shear stresses in highly constricted arteries in vivo.17 Perfusion of the SA-NTs through these devices resulted in a 16-fold increase in the release of free NPs, which accumulated in the endothelial cells distal to the narrowed region (post-stenosis). The researchers demonstrated in vitro the potential for SA-NTs to treat life-threatening embolic occlusions. SA-NTs carrying nanoparticles coated with serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) shrank preformed fibrin clots (250 ± 150 μm diameter) that partially obstructed flow in the channels by 50%. Their results were validated in vivo using a mouse mesenteric injury model with ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombus and a mouse pulmonary embolism model.Figure 1


Microengineering in cardiovascular research: new developments and translational applications.

Chan JM, Wong KH, Richards AM, Drum CL - Cardiovasc. Res. (2015)

Microfluidic studies of arterial stenosis. (A) Schematic representation of a 3D microfluidic model of vascular narrowing that mimics a blood vessel with 90% lumen obstruction. (B) A photograph of the PDMS-based device that mimics vascular stenosis. Reproduced with permission from Korin et al.16.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362405&req=5

CVV049F1: Microfluidic studies of arterial stenosis. (A) Schematic representation of a 3D microfluidic model of vascular narrowing that mimics a blood vessel with 90% lumen obstruction. (B) A photograph of the PDMS-based device that mimics vascular stenosis. Reproduced with permission from Korin et al.16.
Mentions: To find commonality between simple cell culture and animal studies, Korin et al.16 designed a 3D model of vascular stenosis that mimics blood vessels with 90% lumen obstruction. They used the microfluidic system to test their shear-activated nano-therapeutics (SA-NTs), which are microparticles (1–5 µm in diameter) that release smaller poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (180 ± 70 nm) in response to shear at stenotic regions (Figure 1A and B). Computational fluid dynamics modelling of flow in the microfluidic device demonstrated that a shear stress of 10 dyn/cm2 upstream from the occlusion resembled fluid shear stresses in highly constricted arteries in vivo.17 Perfusion of the SA-NTs through these devices resulted in a 16-fold increase in the release of free NPs, which accumulated in the endothelial cells distal to the narrowed region (post-stenosis). The researchers demonstrated in vitro the potential for SA-NTs to treat life-threatening embolic occlusions. SA-NTs carrying nanoparticles coated with serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) shrank preformed fibrin clots (250 ± 150 μm diameter) that partially obstructed flow in the channels by 50%. Their results were validated in vivo using a mouse mesenteric injury model with ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombus and a mouse pulmonary embolism model.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Microfluidic, cellular co-cultures that approximate macro-scale biology are important tools for refining the in vitro study of organ-level function and disease.Here we review applications of these technologies specific to the cardiovascular field, emphasizing three general categories of use: reductionist vascular models, tissue-engineered vascular models, and point-of-care diagnostics.With continued progress in the ability to purposefully control microscale environments, the detailed study of both primary and cultured cells may find new relevance in the general cardiovascular research community.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus