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Neuroinflammation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of microbial neuraminidase.

Granados-Durán P, López-Ávalos MD, Grondona JM, Gómez-Roldán Mdel C, Cifuentes M, Pérez-Martín M, Alvarez M, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Fernández-Llebrez P - Front Med (Lausanne) (2015)

Bottom Line: The expression of ICAM1 in the endothelial cells of the periventricular vessels, IBA1 in microglia, and GFAP in astrocytes notably increased in the regions reached by the injected neuraminidase.The subependymal microglia and the ventricular macrophages begun to express IL1β and some appeared to cross the ependymal layer.Thus, it is likely that a great part of the damage produced by microorganism invading the brain may be due to their neuraminidase content.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biología Celular, Genética y Fisiología, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga , Málaga , Spain.

ABSTRACT
In the present paper, we describe the facts that took place in the rat brain after a single injection of the enzyme neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens into the right lateral ventricle. After injection, it diffused through the cerebrospinal fluid of the ipsilateral ventricle and the third ventricle, and about 400 μm into the periventricular brain parenchyma. The expression of ICAM1 in the endothelial cells of the periventricular vessels, IBA1 in microglia, and GFAP in astrocytes notably increased in the regions reached by the injected neuraminidase. The subependymal microglia and the ventricular macrophages begun to express IL1β and some appeared to cross the ependymal layer. After about 4 h of the injection, leukocytes migrated from large venules of the affected choroid plexus, the meninges and the local subependyma, and infiltrated the brain. The invading cells arrived orderly: first neutrophils, then macrophage-monocytes, and last CD8α-positive T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. Leukocytes in the ventricles and the perivascular zones penetrated the brain parenchyma passing through the ependyma and the glia limitans. Thus, it is likely that a great part of the damage produced by microorganism invading the brain may be due to their neuraminidase content.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Quantification of MPO, IL1β, CD3ε, and PAX5 immunostained cells. The quantification was done in three different locations (indicated by red squares in the coronal section diagrams): (i) the choroid plexus of the injected lateral ventricle, (ii) the area comprising large vessels close to the foramen of Monro and near the subfornical organ (Vessels), and (iii) the zone of the meninges and the optic chiasm. Most of the cells stained and counted were infiltrating cells. MPO- and IL1β-positive cells (neutrophils and macrophagic cells, respectively) reached a maximum before 24 h. The peak of CD3ε and PAX5-positive cells (probably T- and B-lymphocytes) occurred later, and these cells remained longer (even up to 15 days) in some locations. The bars represent the mean ± SEM of five animals. Letters (a–c) on bars indicate the absence (same letter) or presence (different letter) of a significant difference between groups (α = 0.05). Time 0 post-injection of NA (0 h) is considered the baseline population of positive cells.
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Figure 6: Quantification of MPO, IL1β, CD3ε, and PAX5 immunostained cells. The quantification was done in three different locations (indicated by red squares in the coronal section diagrams): (i) the choroid plexus of the injected lateral ventricle, (ii) the area comprising large vessels close to the foramen of Monro and near the subfornical organ (Vessels), and (iii) the zone of the meninges and the optic chiasm. Most of the cells stained and counted were infiltrating cells. MPO- and IL1β-positive cells (neutrophils and macrophagic cells, respectively) reached a maximum before 24 h. The peak of CD3ε and PAX5-positive cells (probably T- and B-lymphocytes) occurred later, and these cells remained longer (even up to 15 days) in some locations. The bars represent the mean ± SEM of five animals. Letters (a–c) on bars indicate the absence (same letter) or presence (different letter) of a significant difference between groups (α = 0.05). Time 0 post-injection of NA (0 h) is considered the baseline population of positive cells.

Mentions: Infiltrating cells were counted at different post-injection times in three selected locations (Figure 6): (i) the choroid plexus of the injected ventricle (Choroid plexus in Figure 6); the contralateral plexus showed virtually no activation; (ii) the zone around the ipsilateral foramen of Monro, where large venules are found (Vessels in Figure 6); (iii) the region of the meninges close to the ipsilateral side of the optic chiasm (Optic chiasm in Figure 6).


Neuroinflammation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of microbial neuraminidase.

Granados-Durán P, López-Ávalos MD, Grondona JM, Gómez-Roldán Mdel C, Cifuentes M, Pérez-Martín M, Alvarez M, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Fernández-Llebrez P - Front Med (Lausanne) (2015)

Quantification of MPO, IL1β, CD3ε, and PAX5 immunostained cells. The quantification was done in three different locations (indicated by red squares in the coronal section diagrams): (i) the choroid plexus of the injected lateral ventricle, (ii) the area comprising large vessels close to the foramen of Monro and near the subfornical organ (Vessels), and (iii) the zone of the meninges and the optic chiasm. Most of the cells stained and counted were infiltrating cells. MPO- and IL1β-positive cells (neutrophils and macrophagic cells, respectively) reached a maximum before 24 h. The peak of CD3ε and PAX5-positive cells (probably T- and B-lymphocytes) occurred later, and these cells remained longer (even up to 15 days) in some locations. The bars represent the mean ± SEM of five animals. Letters (a–c) on bars indicate the absence (same letter) or presence (different letter) of a significant difference between groups (α = 0.05). Time 0 post-injection of NA (0 h) is considered the baseline population of positive cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362343&req=5

Figure 6: Quantification of MPO, IL1β, CD3ε, and PAX5 immunostained cells. The quantification was done in three different locations (indicated by red squares in the coronal section diagrams): (i) the choroid plexus of the injected lateral ventricle, (ii) the area comprising large vessels close to the foramen of Monro and near the subfornical organ (Vessels), and (iii) the zone of the meninges and the optic chiasm. Most of the cells stained and counted were infiltrating cells. MPO- and IL1β-positive cells (neutrophils and macrophagic cells, respectively) reached a maximum before 24 h. The peak of CD3ε and PAX5-positive cells (probably T- and B-lymphocytes) occurred later, and these cells remained longer (even up to 15 days) in some locations. The bars represent the mean ± SEM of five animals. Letters (a–c) on bars indicate the absence (same letter) or presence (different letter) of a significant difference between groups (α = 0.05). Time 0 post-injection of NA (0 h) is considered the baseline population of positive cells.
Mentions: Infiltrating cells were counted at different post-injection times in three selected locations (Figure 6): (i) the choroid plexus of the injected ventricle (Choroid plexus in Figure 6); the contralateral plexus showed virtually no activation; (ii) the zone around the ipsilateral foramen of Monro, where large venules are found (Vessels in Figure 6); (iii) the region of the meninges close to the ipsilateral side of the optic chiasm (Optic chiasm in Figure 6).

Bottom Line: The expression of ICAM1 in the endothelial cells of the periventricular vessels, IBA1 in microglia, and GFAP in astrocytes notably increased in the regions reached by the injected neuraminidase.The subependymal microglia and the ventricular macrophages begun to express IL1β and some appeared to cross the ependymal layer.Thus, it is likely that a great part of the damage produced by microorganism invading the brain may be due to their neuraminidase content.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biología Celular, Genética y Fisiología, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga , Málaga , Spain.

ABSTRACT
In the present paper, we describe the facts that took place in the rat brain after a single injection of the enzyme neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens into the right lateral ventricle. After injection, it diffused through the cerebrospinal fluid of the ipsilateral ventricle and the third ventricle, and about 400 μm into the periventricular brain parenchyma. The expression of ICAM1 in the endothelial cells of the periventricular vessels, IBA1 in microglia, and GFAP in astrocytes notably increased in the regions reached by the injected neuraminidase. The subependymal microglia and the ventricular macrophages begun to express IL1β and some appeared to cross the ependymal layer. After about 4 h of the injection, leukocytes migrated from large venules of the affected choroid plexus, the meninges and the local subependyma, and infiltrated the brain. The invading cells arrived orderly: first neutrophils, then macrophage-monocytes, and last CD8α-positive T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. Leukocytes in the ventricles and the perivascular zones penetrated the brain parenchyma passing through the ependyma and the glia limitans. Thus, it is likely that a great part of the damage produced by microorganism invading the brain may be due to their neuraminidase content.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus