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The effect of listening to music on human transcriptome.

Kanduri C, Raijas P, Ahvenainen M, Philips AK, Ukkola-Vuoti L, Lähdesmäki H, Järvelä I - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: With the advent of genomics and bioinformatics approaches, these effects of music can now be studied in a more detailed fashion.One of the most up-regulated genes, alpha-synuclein (SNCA), is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude on chromosome 4q22.1 and is regulated by GATA2, which is known to be associated with musical aptitude.We observed no significant findings in musically inexperienced participants.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki , Finland.

ABSTRACT
Although brain imaging studies have demonstrated that listening to music alters human brain structure and function, the molecular mechanisms mediating those effects remain unknown. With the advent of genomics and bioinformatics approaches, these effects of music can now be studied in a more detailed fashion. To verify whether listening to classical music has any effect on human transcriptome, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling from the peripheral blood of participants after listening to classical music (n = 48), and after a control study without music exposure (n = 15). As musical experience is known to influence the responses to music, we compared the transcriptional responses of musically experienced and inexperienced participants separately with those of the controls. Comparisons were made based on two subphenotypes of musical experience: musical aptitude and music education. In musically experiencd participants, we observed the differential expression of 45 genes (27 up- and 18 down-regulated) and 97 genes (75 up- and 22 down-regulated) respectively based on subphenotype comparisons (rank product non-parametric statistics, pfp 0.05, >1.2-fold change over time across conditions). Gene ontological overrepresentation analysis (hypergeometric test, FDR < 0.05) revealed that the up-regulated genes are primarily known to be involved in the secretion and transport of dopamine, neuron projection, protein sumoylation, long-term potentiation and dephosphorylation. Down-regulated genes are known to be involved in ATP synthase-coupled proton transport, cytolysis, and positive regulation of caspase, peptidase and endopeptidase activities. One of the most up-regulated genes, alpha-synuclein (SNCA), is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude on chromosome 4q22.1 and is regulated by GATA2, which is known to be associated with musical aptitude. Several genes reported to regulate song perception and production in songbirds displayed altered activities, suggesting a possible evolutionary conservation of sound perception between species. We observed no significant findings in musically inexperienced participants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of chromosome 4.The α-synuclein gene (SNCA) that was found to be up-regulated after music perception in this study is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude as shown by Pulli et al. (2008), Park et al. (2012) and Oikkonen et al. (2014). GATA2, which is located in the best genome-wide association region of musical aptitude (Oikkonen et al., 2014) and regulates the SNCA, is also shown.
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fig-2: Schematic representation of chromosome 4.The α-synuclein gene (SNCA) that was found to be up-regulated after music perception in this study is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude as shown by Pulli et al. (2008), Park et al. (2012) and Oikkonen et al. (2014). GATA2, which is located in the best genome-wide association region of musical aptitude (Oikkonen et al., 2014) and regulates the SNCA, is also shown.

Mentions: The findings of this study suggest that listening to classical music has an effect on human transcriptome. The up-regulation of genes related to dopamine secretion and signaling is in agreement with the previous neuroimaging-based evidences (Salimpoor et al., 2011). Particularly, alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein; SNCA), one of the most up-regulated genes, is involved in dopamine (DA) neuronal homeostasis (Murphy et al., 2000; Oczkowska et al., 2013). Interestingly, SNCA is located on chromosome 4q22.1, the most significant region of linkage for musical aptitude (Pulli et al., 2008; Oikkonen et al., 2014) and regulated by GATA2 (Scherzer et al., 2008), which is associated with musical aptitude (Oikkonen et al., 2014) (Fig. 2). These data provide convergent evidence about the molecular basis of musical traits from both DNA and RNA studies. Another finding from the upstream regulator analysis suggests that listening to music primarily increased the expression of the target genes of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). Notably, dopaminoceptive neuronal glucocorticoid receptor has been described as a key molecule in the regulation of addictive behavior. By reducing dopamine re-uptake, NR3C1 increases the synaptic concentration of dopamine, which leads to rewarding and reinforcing properties (Ambroggi et al., 2009) that have previously been linked to listening to music (Blood & Zatorre, 2001; Koelsch, 2011; Koelsch, 2014; Salimpoor et al., 2011; Salimpoor et al., 2013).


The effect of listening to music on human transcriptome.

Kanduri C, Raijas P, Ahvenainen M, Philips AK, Ukkola-Vuoti L, Lähdesmäki H, Järvelä I - PeerJ (2015)

Schematic representation of chromosome 4.The α-synuclein gene (SNCA) that was found to be up-regulated after music perception in this study is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude as shown by Pulli et al. (2008), Park et al. (2012) and Oikkonen et al. (2014). GATA2, which is located in the best genome-wide association region of musical aptitude (Oikkonen et al., 2014) and regulates the SNCA, is also shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4362302&req=5

fig-2: Schematic representation of chromosome 4.The α-synuclein gene (SNCA) that was found to be up-regulated after music perception in this study is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude as shown by Pulli et al. (2008), Park et al. (2012) and Oikkonen et al. (2014). GATA2, which is located in the best genome-wide association region of musical aptitude (Oikkonen et al., 2014) and regulates the SNCA, is also shown.
Mentions: The findings of this study suggest that listening to classical music has an effect on human transcriptome. The up-regulation of genes related to dopamine secretion and signaling is in agreement with the previous neuroimaging-based evidences (Salimpoor et al., 2011). Particularly, alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein; SNCA), one of the most up-regulated genes, is involved in dopamine (DA) neuronal homeostasis (Murphy et al., 2000; Oczkowska et al., 2013). Interestingly, SNCA is located on chromosome 4q22.1, the most significant region of linkage for musical aptitude (Pulli et al., 2008; Oikkonen et al., 2014) and regulated by GATA2 (Scherzer et al., 2008), which is associated with musical aptitude (Oikkonen et al., 2014) (Fig. 2). These data provide convergent evidence about the molecular basis of musical traits from both DNA and RNA studies. Another finding from the upstream regulator analysis suggests that listening to music primarily increased the expression of the target genes of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). Notably, dopaminoceptive neuronal glucocorticoid receptor has been described as a key molecule in the regulation of addictive behavior. By reducing dopamine re-uptake, NR3C1 increases the synaptic concentration of dopamine, which leads to rewarding and reinforcing properties (Ambroggi et al., 2009) that have previously been linked to listening to music (Blood & Zatorre, 2001; Koelsch, 2011; Koelsch, 2014; Salimpoor et al., 2011; Salimpoor et al., 2013).

Bottom Line: With the advent of genomics and bioinformatics approaches, these effects of music can now be studied in a more detailed fashion.One of the most up-regulated genes, alpha-synuclein (SNCA), is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude on chromosome 4q22.1 and is regulated by GATA2, which is known to be associated with musical aptitude.We observed no significant findings in musically inexperienced participants.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki , Finland.

ABSTRACT
Although brain imaging studies have demonstrated that listening to music alters human brain structure and function, the molecular mechanisms mediating those effects remain unknown. With the advent of genomics and bioinformatics approaches, these effects of music can now be studied in a more detailed fashion. To verify whether listening to classical music has any effect on human transcriptome, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling from the peripheral blood of participants after listening to classical music (n = 48), and after a control study without music exposure (n = 15). As musical experience is known to influence the responses to music, we compared the transcriptional responses of musically experienced and inexperienced participants separately with those of the controls. Comparisons were made based on two subphenotypes of musical experience: musical aptitude and music education. In musically experiencd participants, we observed the differential expression of 45 genes (27 up- and 18 down-regulated) and 97 genes (75 up- and 22 down-regulated) respectively based on subphenotype comparisons (rank product non-parametric statistics, pfp 0.05, >1.2-fold change over time across conditions). Gene ontological overrepresentation analysis (hypergeometric test, FDR < 0.05) revealed that the up-regulated genes are primarily known to be involved in the secretion and transport of dopamine, neuron projection, protein sumoylation, long-term potentiation and dephosphorylation. Down-regulated genes are known to be involved in ATP synthase-coupled proton transport, cytolysis, and positive regulation of caspase, peptidase and endopeptidase activities. One of the most up-regulated genes, alpha-synuclein (SNCA), is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude on chromosome 4q22.1 and is regulated by GATA2, which is known to be associated with musical aptitude. Several genes reported to regulate song perception and production in songbirds displayed altered activities, suggesting a possible evolutionary conservation of sound perception between species. We observed no significant findings in musically inexperienced participants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus