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Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: a systematic review and research needs.

Kraak VI, Story M - Obes Rev (2014)

Bottom Line: Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding.However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables.Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of entertainment companies' popular media characters that have been licensed to food and restaurant companies to promote food products to American children. Related business may include television; animated motion pictures, movies, and films; videos and DVDs; books and comics; radio; music; interactive digital media including advergames and online virtual worlds; theme parks and resorts; and merchandizing, franchising, and licensing. Texts in purple italics are media character names. Texts in roman purple are the parent companies that own the copyright and/or trademark for the character. Texts in green are the companies or networks. Texts in red are the food or restaurant companies that have licensed the media character to promote food products to children. Number in parentheses is the decade or the year that the mascot was created. The trademarked images used in this figure are intended for educational purposes only. Their use is allowed for non-commercial purposes through the US ‘nominative fair use’ doctrine that protects free speech over trademark infringement.Sources: references (74–78).
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fig02: Examples of entertainment companies' popular media characters that have been licensed to food and restaurant companies to promote food products to American children. Related business may include television; animated motion pictures, movies, and films; videos and DVDs; books and comics; radio; music; interactive digital media including advergames and online virtual worlds; theme parks and resorts; and merchandizing, franchising, and licensing. Texts in purple italics are media character names. Texts in roman purple are the parent companies that own the copyright and/or trademark for the character. Texts in green are the companies or networks. Texts in red are the food or restaurant companies that have licensed the media character to promote food products to children. Number in parentheses is the decade or the year that the mascot was created. The trademarked images used in this figure are intended for educational purposes only. Their use is allowed for non-commercial purposes through the US ‘nominative fair use’ doctrine that protects free speech over trademark infringement.Sources: references (74–78).

Mentions: Figure 1 provides examples of more than 40 brand mascots used by 15 food and restaurant companies (58–72) that participate in the US Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) (73). The figure is based on an extensive search of published articles, industry trade literature, books (53–55) and companies' websites. The figure does not include mascots owned by companies that do not voluntarily participate in the CFBAI, such as Chuck E. Cheese's Mr. Cheese Mouse (33). Figure 2 provides examples of more than 55 cartoon media characters that are owned and licensed by five major entertainment and media companies (74–78) to promote food products to children. The figure is based on characters identified through several resources (33,46) supplemented by an extensive search of companies' websites.


Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: a systematic review and research needs.

Kraak VI, Story M - Obes Rev (2014)

Examples of entertainment companies' popular media characters that have been licensed to food and restaurant companies to promote food products to American children. Related business may include television; animated motion pictures, movies, and films; videos and DVDs; books and comics; radio; music; interactive digital media including advergames and online virtual worlds; theme parks and resorts; and merchandizing, franchising, and licensing. Texts in purple italics are media character names. Texts in roman purple are the parent companies that own the copyright and/or trademark for the character. Texts in green are the companies or networks. Texts in red are the food or restaurant companies that have licensed the media character to promote food products to children. Number in parentheses is the decade or the year that the mascot was created. The trademarked images used in this figure are intended for educational purposes only. Their use is allowed for non-commercial purposes through the US ‘nominative fair use’ doctrine that protects free speech over trademark infringement.Sources: references (74–78).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359675&req=5

fig02: Examples of entertainment companies' popular media characters that have been licensed to food and restaurant companies to promote food products to American children. Related business may include television; animated motion pictures, movies, and films; videos and DVDs; books and comics; radio; music; interactive digital media including advergames and online virtual worlds; theme parks and resorts; and merchandizing, franchising, and licensing. Texts in purple italics are media character names. Texts in roman purple are the parent companies that own the copyright and/or trademark for the character. Texts in green are the companies or networks. Texts in red are the food or restaurant companies that have licensed the media character to promote food products to children. Number in parentheses is the decade or the year that the mascot was created. The trademarked images used in this figure are intended for educational purposes only. Their use is allowed for non-commercial purposes through the US ‘nominative fair use’ doctrine that protects free speech over trademark infringement.Sources: references (74–78).
Mentions: Figure 1 provides examples of more than 40 brand mascots used by 15 food and restaurant companies (58–72) that participate in the US Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) (73). The figure is based on an extensive search of published articles, industry trade literature, books (53–55) and companies' websites. The figure does not include mascots owned by companies that do not voluntarily participate in the CFBAI, such as Chuck E. Cheese's Mr. Cheese Mouse (33). Figure 2 provides examples of more than 55 cartoon media characters that are owned and licensed by five major entertainment and media companies (74–78) to promote food products to children. The figure is based on characters identified through several resources (33,46) supplemented by an extensive search of companies' websites.

Bottom Line: Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding.However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables.Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus