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How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?

Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2015)

Bottom Line: However, LDL is not the only or even the most important biomarker for CHD risk.From this an integrated CHD pathogenetic pathway system was constructed.A focus primarily on the low density lipoprotein cholesterol biomarker for CHD risk has led to the traditional guidelines of CHD dietary recommendations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CRCED, North-West University, and consultants to TEMM International (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 11207, Silver Lakes, 0054 South Africa.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diet has a significant relationship with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Traditionally the effect of diet on CHD was measured with the biomarker for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, LDL is not the only or even the most important biomarker for CHD risk. A suitably integrated view of the mechanism by which diet influences the detailed CHD pathogenetic pathways is therefore needed in order to better understand CHD risk factors and help with better holistic CHD prevention and treatment decisions.

Methods: A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted. From this an integrated CHD pathogenetic pathway system was constructed. CHD biomarkers, which are found on these pathways, are the only measurable data to link diet with these CHD pathways. They were thus used to simplify the link between diet and the CHD mechanism. Data were systematically analysed from 294 cohort studies of CHD biomarkers constituting 1 187 350 patients.

Results and discussion: The resulting integrated analysis provides insight into the higher-order interactions underlying CHD and high-glycemic load (HGL) diets. A novel "connection graph" illustrates the measurable relationship between HGL diets and the relative risks attributed to the important CHD serological biomarkers. The "connection graph" vividly shows that HGL diets not only influence the lipid and metabolic biomarkers, but also the inflammation, coagulation and vascular function biomarkers in an important way.

Conclusion: A focus primarily on the low density lipoprotein cholesterol biomarker for CHD risk has led to the traditional guidelines of CHD dietary recommendations. This has however inadvertently led to HGL diets. The influence of HGL diets on the other CHD biomarkers is not always fully appreciated. Thus, new diets or other interventions which address the full integrated CHD impact, as shown in this paper, are required.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Interconnection of relative risk effects of high glycemic load diets and serological biomarkers for CHD. “ACR” denotes albumin-to-creatinine ratio; Trop, troponins; Fibrin, fibrinogen; MPO, myeloperoxidase; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; Cysteine, Homocysteine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Trigl, triglycerides; ApoB, Apolipoprotein-B; Adipon, adiponectin; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; Cort, cortisol; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin.
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Fig3: Interconnection of relative risk effects of high glycemic load diets and serological biomarkers for CHD. “ACR” denotes albumin-to-creatinine ratio; Trop, troponins; Fibrin, fibrinogen; MPO, myeloperoxidase; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; Cysteine, Homocysteine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Trigl, triglycerides; ApoB, Apolipoprotein-B; Adipon, adiponectin; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; Cort, cortisol; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin.

Mentions: The effects of HGL diets on CHD are further characterised by the ‘connection graph’ in Figure 3. The ‘connection graph’ is a simplification of the pathogenesis of CHD presented in Figure 1. Within this graph none of the underlying pathogenesis is neglected, but only the CHD biomarkers affected by HGL diets are indicated. The pathways, from Figure 1, through which the consumption of HGL diets effect the biomarkers are shown on the connections.Figure 3


How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?

Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2015)

Interconnection of relative risk effects of high glycemic load diets and serological biomarkers for CHD. “ACR” denotes albumin-to-creatinine ratio; Trop, troponins; Fibrin, fibrinogen; MPO, myeloperoxidase; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; Cysteine, Homocysteine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Trigl, triglycerides; ApoB, Apolipoprotein-B; Adipon, adiponectin; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; Cort, cortisol; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359552&req=5

Fig3: Interconnection of relative risk effects of high glycemic load diets and serological biomarkers for CHD. “ACR” denotes albumin-to-creatinine ratio; Trop, troponins; Fibrin, fibrinogen; MPO, myeloperoxidase; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; Cysteine, Homocysteine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Trigl, triglycerides; ApoB, Apolipoprotein-B; Adipon, adiponectin; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; Cort, cortisol; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin.
Mentions: The effects of HGL diets on CHD are further characterised by the ‘connection graph’ in Figure 3. The ‘connection graph’ is a simplification of the pathogenesis of CHD presented in Figure 1. Within this graph none of the underlying pathogenesis is neglected, but only the CHD biomarkers affected by HGL diets are indicated. The pathways, from Figure 1, through which the consumption of HGL diets effect the biomarkers are shown on the connections.Figure 3

Bottom Line: However, LDL is not the only or even the most important biomarker for CHD risk.From this an integrated CHD pathogenetic pathway system was constructed.A focus primarily on the low density lipoprotein cholesterol biomarker for CHD risk has led to the traditional guidelines of CHD dietary recommendations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CRCED, North-West University, and consultants to TEMM International (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 11207, Silver Lakes, 0054 South Africa.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diet has a significant relationship with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Traditionally the effect of diet on CHD was measured with the biomarker for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, LDL is not the only or even the most important biomarker for CHD risk. A suitably integrated view of the mechanism by which diet influences the detailed CHD pathogenetic pathways is therefore needed in order to better understand CHD risk factors and help with better holistic CHD prevention and treatment decisions.

Methods: A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted. From this an integrated CHD pathogenetic pathway system was constructed. CHD biomarkers, which are found on these pathways, are the only measurable data to link diet with these CHD pathways. They were thus used to simplify the link between diet and the CHD mechanism. Data were systematically analysed from 294 cohort studies of CHD biomarkers constituting 1 187 350 patients.

Results and discussion: The resulting integrated analysis provides insight into the higher-order interactions underlying CHD and high-glycemic load (HGL) diets. A novel "connection graph" illustrates the measurable relationship between HGL diets and the relative risks attributed to the important CHD serological biomarkers. The "connection graph" vividly shows that HGL diets not only influence the lipid and metabolic biomarkers, but also the inflammation, coagulation and vascular function biomarkers in an important way.

Conclusion: A focus primarily on the low density lipoprotein cholesterol biomarker for CHD risk has led to the traditional guidelines of CHD dietary recommendations. This has however inadvertently led to HGL diets. The influence of HGL diets on the other CHD biomarkers is not always fully appreciated. Thus, new diets or other interventions which address the full integrated CHD impact, as shown in this paper, are required.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus