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Atypical development of white matter microstructure of the corpus callosum in males with autism: a longitudinal investigation.

Travers BG, Tromp do PM, Adluru N, Lange N, Destiche D, Ennis C, Nielsen JA, Froehlich AL, Prigge MB, Fletcher PT, Anderson JS, Zielinski BA, Bigler ED, Lainhart JE, Alexander AL - Mol Autism (2015)

Bottom Line: In individuals with typical development, the corpus callosum is known to undergo a protracted development from childhood through young adulthood.When analyses were broken down by age group, atypical developmental trajectories were present only in the youngest participants (10 years of age and younger).Significant main effects for group were found in terms of decreased fractional anisotropy across all three subregions of the corpus callosum (genu, body, and splenium) and increased mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity in the posterior corpus callosum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Occupational Therapy Program, Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI USA ; Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure in the brain, and it is the most consistently reported to be atypical in diffusion tensor imaging studies of autism spectrum disorder. In individuals with typical development, the corpus callosum is known to undergo a protracted development from childhood through young adulthood. However, no study has longitudinally examined the developmental trajectory of corpus callosum in autism past early childhood.

Methods: The present study used a cohort sequential design over 9 years to examine age-related changes of the corpus callosum in 100 males with autism and 56 age-matched males with typical development from early childhood (when autism can first be reliably diagnosed) to mid-adulthood (after development of the corpus callosum has been completed) (3 to 41 years of age).

Results: The group with autism demonstrated a different developmental trajectory of white matter microstructure in the anterior corpus callosum's (genu and body) fractional anisotropy, which suggests atypical brain maturation in these regions in autism. When analyses were broken down by age group, atypical developmental trajectories were present only in the youngest participants (10 years of age and younger). Significant main effects for group were found in terms of decreased fractional anisotropy across all three subregions of the corpus callosum (genu, body, and splenium) and increased mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity in the posterior corpus callosum.

Conclusions: These longitudinal results suggest atypical early childhood development of the corpus callosum microstructure in autism that transitions into sustained group differences in adolescence and adulthood. This pattern of results provides longitudinal evidence consistent with a growing number of published studies and hypotheses regarding abnormal brain connectivity across the life span in autism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fractional anisotropy (FA) measures plotted as a function of age and group. ASD, autism spectrum disorder; TDC, typically developing controls. Time 1 scatter has been adjusted for the head coil changes, and the overlaid growth models for each group represent the generalized additive mixed model spline curves (with dashed 95% confidence intervals), controlling for head coil changes, total motion index, signal-to-noise ratio, and random effects.
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Fig2: Fractional anisotropy (FA) measures plotted as a function of age and group. ASD, autism spectrum disorder; TDC, typically developing controls. Time 1 scatter has been adjusted for the head coil changes, and the overlaid growth models for each group represent the generalized additive mixed model spline curves (with dashed 95% confidence intervals), controlling for head coil changes, total motion index, signal-to-noise ratio, and random effects.

Mentions: We tested for case-control differences in the tensor coefficients (FA, MD, RD, AD) and their longitudinal trajectories. FA measurements obtained from each of the three subregions of the corpus callosum (that is, the genu, body, and splenium) can be viewed in Figure 2. A figure of the cortical projections of each subregion of the corpus callosum can be seen in Additional file 2, which shows that the genu primarily contains projections to prefrontal cortices, the body contains projections premotor and supplementary motor frontal cortices to the primary somatosensory cortices, and the splenium contains projections to the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes.Figure 2


Atypical development of white matter microstructure of the corpus callosum in males with autism: a longitudinal investigation.

Travers BG, Tromp do PM, Adluru N, Lange N, Destiche D, Ennis C, Nielsen JA, Froehlich AL, Prigge MB, Fletcher PT, Anderson JS, Zielinski BA, Bigler ED, Lainhart JE, Alexander AL - Mol Autism (2015)

Fractional anisotropy (FA) measures plotted as a function of age and group. ASD, autism spectrum disorder; TDC, typically developing controls. Time 1 scatter has been adjusted for the head coil changes, and the overlaid growth models for each group represent the generalized additive mixed model spline curves (with dashed 95% confidence intervals), controlling for head coil changes, total motion index, signal-to-noise ratio, and random effects.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359536&req=5

Fig2: Fractional anisotropy (FA) measures plotted as a function of age and group. ASD, autism spectrum disorder; TDC, typically developing controls. Time 1 scatter has been adjusted for the head coil changes, and the overlaid growth models for each group represent the generalized additive mixed model spline curves (with dashed 95% confidence intervals), controlling for head coil changes, total motion index, signal-to-noise ratio, and random effects.
Mentions: We tested for case-control differences in the tensor coefficients (FA, MD, RD, AD) and their longitudinal trajectories. FA measurements obtained from each of the three subregions of the corpus callosum (that is, the genu, body, and splenium) can be viewed in Figure 2. A figure of the cortical projections of each subregion of the corpus callosum can be seen in Additional file 2, which shows that the genu primarily contains projections to prefrontal cortices, the body contains projections premotor and supplementary motor frontal cortices to the primary somatosensory cortices, and the splenium contains projections to the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes.Figure 2

Bottom Line: In individuals with typical development, the corpus callosum is known to undergo a protracted development from childhood through young adulthood.When analyses were broken down by age group, atypical developmental trajectories were present only in the youngest participants (10 years of age and younger).Significant main effects for group were found in terms of decreased fractional anisotropy across all three subregions of the corpus callosum (genu, body, and splenium) and increased mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity in the posterior corpus callosum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Occupational Therapy Program, Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI USA ; Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure in the brain, and it is the most consistently reported to be atypical in diffusion tensor imaging studies of autism spectrum disorder. In individuals with typical development, the corpus callosum is known to undergo a protracted development from childhood through young adulthood. However, no study has longitudinally examined the developmental trajectory of corpus callosum in autism past early childhood.

Methods: The present study used a cohort sequential design over 9 years to examine age-related changes of the corpus callosum in 100 males with autism and 56 age-matched males with typical development from early childhood (when autism can first be reliably diagnosed) to mid-adulthood (after development of the corpus callosum has been completed) (3 to 41 years of age).

Results: The group with autism demonstrated a different developmental trajectory of white matter microstructure in the anterior corpus callosum's (genu and body) fractional anisotropy, which suggests atypical brain maturation in these regions in autism. When analyses were broken down by age group, atypical developmental trajectories were present only in the youngest participants (10 years of age and younger). Significant main effects for group were found in terms of decreased fractional anisotropy across all three subregions of the corpus callosum (genu, body, and splenium) and increased mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity in the posterior corpus callosum.

Conclusions: These longitudinal results suggest atypical early childhood development of the corpus callosum microstructure in autism that transitions into sustained group differences in adolescence and adulthood. This pattern of results provides longitudinal evidence consistent with a growing number of published studies and hypotheses regarding abnormal brain connectivity across the life span in autism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus