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Cognitive testing for dementia is adversely affected by administration in a foreign location.

Bechtel C, Remington R, Barton B, Barasauskas C, Shea TB - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Bottom Line: The Foreign cohort performed significantly worse than the Familiar cohort at baseline.They improved statistically, and matched Familiar cohort performance, by their second visit.These findings support the notion that a foreign location can adversely affect performance on cognitive tests, and therefore support cognitive testing in a familiar location.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Framingham State University, Framingham, MA, 01701, USA. cbechtel@framingham.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: It is colloquially considered that cognitive tests can be adversely affected by administration in a foreign location. However, a definitive demonstration of this is lacking in the literature. To determine whether or not this is the case, we compared the results of cognitive testing in a familiar versus foreign environment by single test administrator of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease randomized to placebo in a multi-site clinical study.

Findings: Cognitive tests were administered to 6 long-term residents of an assisted living facility at their residence (the "Familiar" cohort). The identical tests were administered to a newly admitted resident and to 2 community-dwelling individuals who drove to the administrator's office for the first time (the "Foreign" cohort). Secondary testing was administered 3 months later at the same respective locations. Caregivers of participants completed reports of mood, behavior and activities of daily living. The Familiar cohort performed equally well at both visits. The Foreign cohort performed significantly worse than the Familiar cohort at baseline. They improved statistically, and matched Familiar cohort performance, by their second visit. Caregiver reports for both cohorts were unchanged between visits.

Conclusions: These findings support the notion that a foreign location can adversely affect performance on cognitive tests, and therefore support cognitive testing in a familiar location.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Differential performance of foreign and familiar cohorts on the test battery. Panels present representative Clox 1 images for Foreign and Familiar cohorts from the baseline and 3-month sessions as indicated. The respective scores out of the maximum possible 15 are indicated in the bottom left of each image. The accompanying graphs present the total scores both cohorts on the test battery; the boxes represent the 25th and 75th percentile (lower and upper ends, respectively), the line depicts the median, the diamond depicts the mean, and the whiskers represent the lowest and highest values that are not outliers. See text for further discussion.
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Fig1: Differential performance of foreign and familiar cohorts on the test battery. Panels present representative Clox 1 images for Foreign and Familiar cohorts from the baseline and 3-month sessions as indicated. The respective scores out of the maximum possible 15 are indicated in the bottom left of each image. The accompanying graphs present the total scores both cohorts on the test battery; the boxes represent the 25th and 75th percentile (lower and upper ends, respectively), the line depicts the median, the diamond depicts the mean, and the whiskers represent the lowest and highest values that are not outliers. See text for further discussion.

Mentions: Because of the small sample size, we used a non-parametric technique (i.e., Wilcoxon rank sum test) to compare the groups for baseline age, education, MMSE, and GDS as well as for the outcomes in Figure 1. For clarity, we presented the mean and standard deviation in Table 1 and standard box plots in Figure 1.Figure 1


Cognitive testing for dementia is adversely affected by administration in a foreign location.

Bechtel C, Remington R, Barton B, Barasauskas C, Shea TB - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Differential performance of foreign and familiar cohorts on the test battery. Panels present representative Clox 1 images for Foreign and Familiar cohorts from the baseline and 3-month sessions as indicated. The respective scores out of the maximum possible 15 are indicated in the bottom left of each image. The accompanying graphs present the total scores both cohorts on the test battery; the boxes represent the 25th and 75th percentile (lower and upper ends, respectively), the line depicts the median, the diamond depicts the mean, and the whiskers represent the lowest and highest values that are not outliers. See text for further discussion.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359506&req=5

Fig1: Differential performance of foreign and familiar cohorts on the test battery. Panels present representative Clox 1 images for Foreign and Familiar cohorts from the baseline and 3-month sessions as indicated. The respective scores out of the maximum possible 15 are indicated in the bottom left of each image. The accompanying graphs present the total scores both cohorts on the test battery; the boxes represent the 25th and 75th percentile (lower and upper ends, respectively), the line depicts the median, the diamond depicts the mean, and the whiskers represent the lowest and highest values that are not outliers. See text for further discussion.
Mentions: Because of the small sample size, we used a non-parametric technique (i.e., Wilcoxon rank sum test) to compare the groups for baseline age, education, MMSE, and GDS as well as for the outcomes in Figure 1. For clarity, we presented the mean and standard deviation in Table 1 and standard box plots in Figure 1.Figure 1

Bottom Line: The Foreign cohort performed significantly worse than the Familiar cohort at baseline.They improved statistically, and matched Familiar cohort performance, by their second visit.These findings support the notion that a foreign location can adversely affect performance on cognitive tests, and therefore support cognitive testing in a familiar location.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Framingham State University, Framingham, MA, 01701, USA. cbechtel@framingham.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: It is colloquially considered that cognitive tests can be adversely affected by administration in a foreign location. However, a definitive demonstration of this is lacking in the literature. To determine whether or not this is the case, we compared the results of cognitive testing in a familiar versus foreign environment by single test administrator of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease randomized to placebo in a multi-site clinical study.

Findings: Cognitive tests were administered to 6 long-term residents of an assisted living facility at their residence (the "Familiar" cohort). The identical tests were administered to a newly admitted resident and to 2 community-dwelling individuals who drove to the administrator's office for the first time (the "Foreign" cohort). Secondary testing was administered 3 months later at the same respective locations. Caregivers of participants completed reports of mood, behavior and activities of daily living. The Familiar cohort performed equally well at both visits. The Foreign cohort performed significantly worse than the Familiar cohort at baseline. They improved statistically, and matched Familiar cohort performance, by their second visit. Caregiver reports for both cohorts were unchanged between visits.

Conclusions: These findings support the notion that a foreign location can adversely affect performance on cognitive tests, and therefore support cognitive testing in a familiar location.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus