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Ameliorative effect of water spinach, Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity.

Dua TK, Dewanjee S, Gangopadhyay M, Khanra R, Zia-Ul-Haq M, De Feo V - J Transl Med (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, the serum biochemical and haematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) altered in the NaAsO2-treated animals.However, concurrent administration of AEIA (100 mg/ml) could significantly reinstate the NaAsO2-induced pathogenesis.Presence of substantial quantities of dietary antioxidants within AEIA would be responsible for overall protective effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Advanced Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032, India. tarunkduaju@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used against Arsenic (As) poisoning in folk medicines in India. The present study was designed to explore the therapeutic role of aqueous extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against As-intoxication.

Methods: AEIA was chemically standardized by spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis. The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on isolated murine hepatocytes. The effect on redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM) + AEIA (400 μg/ml). The protective effect of AEIA (400 μg/ml) in expressions of apoptotic proteins were estimated in vitro. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, biochemical, As bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to ensure the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against NaAsO2 (10 mg/kg) intoxication.

Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of substantial quantities of phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and ascorbic acid in AEIA. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with AEIA (0-400 μg/ml) + NaAsO2 (10 μM) exerted a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM, ~ IC50) induced apoptosis via augmenting oxidative stress. NaAsO2 treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced levels of ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.05-0.01) and GSH (p < 0.01) levels. However, AEIA (400 μg/ml) + NaAsO2 (10 μM) could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reinstate the aforementioned parameters to near-normal status. Besides, AEIA (400 μg/ml) could significantly counteract (p <0.05-0.01) ROS mediated alteration in the expressions of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, BAD, Cyt C, Apaf 1, caspases, Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, NaAsO2 (10 mg/kg) treatment in mice caused significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) elevated As bioaccumulation, ATP levels, DNA fragmentations and oxidative stress in the liver, kidney, heart, brain and testes along with alteration in cytoarchitecture of these organs. In addition, the serum biochemical and haematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) altered in the NaAsO2-treated animals. However, concurrent administration of AEIA (100 mg/ml) could significantly reinstate the NaAsO2-induced pathogenesis.

Conclusion: Presence of substantial quantities of dietary antioxidants within AEIA would be responsible for overall protective effect.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Histological sections of different tested organs of experimental mice in absence (NaAsO2) and presence of AEIA (NaAsO2 + AEIA). Untreated mice were kept as control to compare the structural changes caused by NaAsO2. Panel A. Histogram of liver sections; blue and yellow arrows represent normal portal vein and hepatocytes, respectively; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated structural changes of portal vein (blue) and hepatocytes (yellow) with infiltrating leukocytes (green). Panel B. Histogram of kidney sections; red and green arrows represent normal glomerulus structure and renal tubules, respectively; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated glomerular hypercellularity (red) and cloudy swelling of renal tubules (green). Panel C. Histogram of heart sections; black arrows indicated normal radiating pattern of cardiac muscle; black dotted arrows showed extensive degeneration in cardiac muscle during As-intoxication. Panel D. Histogram of brain sections; blue arrows represent normal normal cyto-architecture of brain; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated development of vacuolated area of degenerated tissues (red) and diffused edema (blue). Panel E. Histogram of testes sections; green arrows represent normal seminiferous tubules; green dotted arrows represent NaAsO2 mediated marked degeneration in the seminiferous tubules in testes section.
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Fig8: Histological sections of different tested organs of experimental mice in absence (NaAsO2) and presence of AEIA (NaAsO2 + AEIA). Untreated mice were kept as control to compare the structural changes caused by NaAsO2. Panel A. Histogram of liver sections; blue and yellow arrows represent normal portal vein and hepatocytes, respectively; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated structural changes of portal vein (blue) and hepatocytes (yellow) with infiltrating leukocytes (green). Panel B. Histogram of kidney sections; red and green arrows represent normal glomerulus structure and renal tubules, respectively; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated glomerular hypercellularity (red) and cloudy swelling of renal tubules (green). Panel C. Histogram of heart sections; black arrows indicated normal radiating pattern of cardiac muscle; black dotted arrows showed extensive degeneration in cardiac muscle during As-intoxication. Panel D. Histogram of brain sections; blue arrows represent normal normal cyto-architecture of brain; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated development of vacuolated area of degenerated tissues (red) and diffused edema (blue). Panel E. Histogram of testes sections; green arrows represent normal seminiferous tubules; green dotted arrows represent NaAsO2 mediated marked degeneration in the seminiferous tubules in testes section.

Mentions: The histological assessments of different organs viz. liver, kidney, heart, brain and testes have been presented in Figure 8. Histological assessments of liver of NaAsO2 (4 mg/kg) treated mice exhibited hepatocytes focal apoptosis with disrupted portal vein, when compared with normal liver section (Figure 8, panel: A). The histological examination of the renal tissues of the NaAsO2-control mice showed glomerular damage and cloudy swelling of tubules when compared with normal control (Figure 8, panel: B). As-intoxication led to extensive degeneration of cardiac muscle and interstitial fibrosis leading to abnormal radiation pattern of cardiac muscle (Figure 8, panel: C). The histological examination of brains of NaAsO2-control mice exhibited vacuolated area degenerated tissues and diffused edema as compared to normal control mice (Figure 8, panel: D). To study the histology of testes, severe cellular damage and degeneration of seminiferous tubules was observed in the testes from As-intoxicated mice (Figure 8, panel: E). However, treatment with AEIA (100 mg/kg) along with NaAsO2 (4 mg/kg) could reinstate the histology of selected organs near to normalcy.Figure 8


Ameliorative effect of water spinach, Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity.

Dua TK, Dewanjee S, Gangopadhyay M, Khanra R, Zia-Ul-Haq M, De Feo V - J Transl Med (2015)

Histological sections of different tested organs of experimental mice in absence (NaAsO2) and presence of AEIA (NaAsO2 + AEIA). Untreated mice were kept as control to compare the structural changes caused by NaAsO2. Panel A. Histogram of liver sections; blue and yellow arrows represent normal portal vein and hepatocytes, respectively; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated structural changes of portal vein (blue) and hepatocytes (yellow) with infiltrating leukocytes (green). Panel B. Histogram of kidney sections; red and green arrows represent normal glomerulus structure and renal tubules, respectively; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated glomerular hypercellularity (red) and cloudy swelling of renal tubules (green). Panel C. Histogram of heart sections; black arrows indicated normal radiating pattern of cardiac muscle; black dotted arrows showed extensive degeneration in cardiac muscle during As-intoxication. Panel D. Histogram of brain sections; blue arrows represent normal normal cyto-architecture of brain; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated development of vacuolated area of degenerated tissues (red) and diffused edema (blue). Panel E. Histogram of testes sections; green arrows represent normal seminiferous tubules; green dotted arrows represent NaAsO2 mediated marked degeneration in the seminiferous tubules in testes section.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359489&req=5

Fig8: Histological sections of different tested organs of experimental mice in absence (NaAsO2) and presence of AEIA (NaAsO2 + AEIA). Untreated mice were kept as control to compare the structural changes caused by NaAsO2. Panel A. Histogram of liver sections; blue and yellow arrows represent normal portal vein and hepatocytes, respectively; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated structural changes of portal vein (blue) and hepatocytes (yellow) with infiltrating leukocytes (green). Panel B. Histogram of kidney sections; red and green arrows represent normal glomerulus structure and renal tubules, respectively; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated glomerular hypercellularity (red) and cloudy swelling of renal tubules (green). Panel C. Histogram of heart sections; black arrows indicated normal radiating pattern of cardiac muscle; black dotted arrows showed extensive degeneration in cardiac muscle during As-intoxication. Panel D. Histogram of brain sections; blue arrows represent normal normal cyto-architecture of brain; dotted arrows represent the NaAsO2 mediated development of vacuolated area of degenerated tissues (red) and diffused edema (blue). Panel E. Histogram of testes sections; green arrows represent normal seminiferous tubules; green dotted arrows represent NaAsO2 mediated marked degeneration in the seminiferous tubules in testes section.
Mentions: The histological assessments of different organs viz. liver, kidney, heart, brain and testes have been presented in Figure 8. Histological assessments of liver of NaAsO2 (4 mg/kg) treated mice exhibited hepatocytes focal apoptosis with disrupted portal vein, when compared with normal liver section (Figure 8, panel: A). The histological examination of the renal tissues of the NaAsO2-control mice showed glomerular damage and cloudy swelling of tubules when compared with normal control (Figure 8, panel: B). As-intoxication led to extensive degeneration of cardiac muscle and interstitial fibrosis leading to abnormal radiation pattern of cardiac muscle (Figure 8, panel: C). The histological examination of brains of NaAsO2-control mice exhibited vacuolated area degenerated tissues and diffused edema as compared to normal control mice (Figure 8, panel: D). To study the histology of testes, severe cellular damage and degeneration of seminiferous tubules was observed in the testes from As-intoxicated mice (Figure 8, panel: E). However, treatment with AEIA (100 mg/kg) along with NaAsO2 (4 mg/kg) could reinstate the histology of selected organs near to normalcy.Figure 8

Bottom Line: In addition, the serum biochemical and haematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) altered in the NaAsO2-treated animals.However, concurrent administration of AEIA (100 mg/ml) could significantly reinstate the NaAsO2-induced pathogenesis.Presence of substantial quantities of dietary antioxidants within AEIA would be responsible for overall protective effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Advanced Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032, India. tarunkduaju@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used against Arsenic (As) poisoning in folk medicines in India. The present study was designed to explore the therapeutic role of aqueous extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against As-intoxication.

Methods: AEIA was chemically standardized by spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis. The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on isolated murine hepatocytes. The effect on redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM) + AEIA (400 μg/ml). The protective effect of AEIA (400 μg/ml) in expressions of apoptotic proteins were estimated in vitro. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, biochemical, As bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to ensure the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against NaAsO2 (10 mg/kg) intoxication.

Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of substantial quantities of phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and ascorbic acid in AEIA. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with AEIA (0-400 μg/ml) + NaAsO2 (10 μM) exerted a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM, ~ IC50) induced apoptosis via augmenting oxidative stress. NaAsO2 treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced levels of ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.05-0.01) and GSH (p < 0.01) levels. However, AEIA (400 μg/ml) + NaAsO2 (10 μM) could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reinstate the aforementioned parameters to near-normal status. Besides, AEIA (400 μg/ml) could significantly counteract (p <0.05-0.01) ROS mediated alteration in the expressions of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, BAD, Cyt C, Apaf 1, caspases, Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, NaAsO2 (10 mg/kg) treatment in mice caused significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) elevated As bioaccumulation, ATP levels, DNA fragmentations and oxidative stress in the liver, kidney, heart, brain and testes along with alteration in cytoarchitecture of these organs. In addition, the serum biochemical and haematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) altered in the NaAsO2-treated animals. However, concurrent administration of AEIA (100 mg/ml) could significantly reinstate the NaAsO2-induced pathogenesis.

Conclusion: Presence of substantial quantities of dietary antioxidants within AEIA would be responsible for overall protective effect.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus