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Ameliorative effect of water spinach, Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity.

Dua TK, Dewanjee S, Gangopadhyay M, Khanra R, Zia-Ul-Haq M, De Feo V - J Transl Med (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, the serum biochemical and haematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) altered in the NaAsO2-treated animals.However, concurrent administration of AEIA (100 mg/ml) could significantly reinstate the NaAsO2-induced pathogenesis.Presence of substantial quantities of dietary antioxidants within AEIA would be responsible for overall protective effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Advanced Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032, India. tarunkduaju@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used against Arsenic (As) poisoning in folk medicines in India. The present study was designed to explore the therapeutic role of aqueous extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against As-intoxication.

Methods: AEIA was chemically standardized by spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis. The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on isolated murine hepatocytes. The effect on redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM) + AEIA (400 μg/ml). The protective effect of AEIA (400 μg/ml) in expressions of apoptotic proteins were estimated in vitro. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, biochemical, As bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to ensure the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against NaAsO2 (10 mg/kg) intoxication.

Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of substantial quantities of phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and ascorbic acid in AEIA. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with AEIA (0-400 μg/ml) + NaAsO2 (10 μM) exerted a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM, ~ IC50) induced apoptosis via augmenting oxidative stress. NaAsO2 treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced levels of ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.05-0.01) and GSH (p < 0.01) levels. However, AEIA (400 μg/ml) + NaAsO2 (10 μM) could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reinstate the aforementioned parameters to near-normal status. Besides, AEIA (400 μg/ml) could significantly counteract (p <0.05-0.01) ROS mediated alteration in the expressions of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, BAD, Cyt C, Apaf 1, caspases, Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, NaAsO2 (10 mg/kg) treatment in mice caused significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) elevated As bioaccumulation, ATP levels, DNA fragmentations and oxidative stress in the liver, kidney, heart, brain and testes along with alteration in cytoarchitecture of these organs. In addition, the serum biochemical and haematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) altered in the NaAsO2-treated animals. However, concurrent administration of AEIA (100 mg/ml) could significantly reinstate the NaAsO2-induced pathogenesis.

Conclusion: Presence of substantial quantities of dietary antioxidants within AEIA would be responsible for overall protective effect.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The morphology ofI. aquaticaForssk. Panel A. The plant floating on water; Panel B. The plant creeping on moist soil; Panel C. The funnel form flower of I. aquatica; Panel D. flowering twig with simple and alternate leaves; Panel E. rooting at nodes; Panel F. leaves arise from nodes.
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Fig1: The morphology ofI. aquaticaForssk. Panel A. The plant floating on water; Panel B. The plant creeping on moist soil; Panel C. The funnel form flower of I. aquatica; Panel D. flowering twig with simple and alternate leaves; Panel E. rooting at nodes; Panel F. leaves arise from nodes.

Mentions: Ground water As contamination (greater than WHO permissible limit) is a major threat in Gangetic delta between India (West Bengal) and Bangladesh [1]. Nearly, 51 districts of these two Countries are seriously affected by severe arsenicosis. Water spinach, Ipomea aquatica Forssk. (Convolvulaceae), is a popular vegetable in this place. I. aquatica is an aquatic or semi-aquatic annual herb (Figure 1) creeping on moist soil/sand or floating on water. Stems are hollow, branched, and juicy up to 3 m long, to 1 cm in diameter. Leaves are simple, alternate, with glabrous petioles. The leaves are generally arrow headed but variable in shapes. Flowers are funnel form, solitary, with white to purple petals. Fruits are oval to spherical capsules becoming woody at maturity. The aerial parts of I. aquatica are consumed as green leafy vegetables due to their high nutritive values and consumed by the people of Southern Asia, India, Bangladesh and China. I. aquatica has been used in folk medicine against different diseases including diabetes [10], liver malfunction [11], constipation [12] and in the treatment of As poisoning [13]. Literature reviews revealed presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, β-catotene and ascorbic acid in I. aquatica [14]. Despite the ethnomedicinal literature revealed the effectiveness of I. aquatica against arsenicosis, the plant has not been yet explored scientifically to validate this folklore claim. Considering the ethnomedicinal values of I. aquatica against As poisoning, the current study was designed to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of aqueous extract of I. aquatica against As-intoxication. Since I. aquatica is a dietary vegetable, the edible (aqueous) extract was chosen in this study. Significant attempts were made to elucidate the mechanism of actions against arsenicosis and to establish the correlation between observed effects with the phytochemicals present within the test material.Figure 1


Ameliorative effect of water spinach, Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity.

Dua TK, Dewanjee S, Gangopadhyay M, Khanra R, Zia-Ul-Haq M, De Feo V - J Transl Med (2015)

The morphology ofI. aquaticaForssk. Panel A. The plant floating on water; Panel B. The plant creeping on moist soil; Panel C. The funnel form flower of I. aquatica; Panel D. flowering twig with simple and alternate leaves; Panel E. rooting at nodes; Panel F. leaves arise from nodes.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359489&req=5

Fig1: The morphology ofI. aquaticaForssk. Panel A. The plant floating on water; Panel B. The plant creeping on moist soil; Panel C. The funnel form flower of I. aquatica; Panel D. flowering twig with simple and alternate leaves; Panel E. rooting at nodes; Panel F. leaves arise from nodes.
Mentions: Ground water As contamination (greater than WHO permissible limit) is a major threat in Gangetic delta between India (West Bengal) and Bangladesh [1]. Nearly, 51 districts of these two Countries are seriously affected by severe arsenicosis. Water spinach, Ipomea aquatica Forssk. (Convolvulaceae), is a popular vegetable in this place. I. aquatica is an aquatic or semi-aquatic annual herb (Figure 1) creeping on moist soil/sand or floating on water. Stems are hollow, branched, and juicy up to 3 m long, to 1 cm in diameter. Leaves are simple, alternate, with glabrous petioles. The leaves are generally arrow headed but variable in shapes. Flowers are funnel form, solitary, with white to purple petals. Fruits are oval to spherical capsules becoming woody at maturity. The aerial parts of I. aquatica are consumed as green leafy vegetables due to their high nutritive values and consumed by the people of Southern Asia, India, Bangladesh and China. I. aquatica has been used in folk medicine against different diseases including diabetes [10], liver malfunction [11], constipation [12] and in the treatment of As poisoning [13]. Literature reviews revealed presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, β-catotene and ascorbic acid in I. aquatica [14]. Despite the ethnomedicinal literature revealed the effectiveness of I. aquatica against arsenicosis, the plant has not been yet explored scientifically to validate this folklore claim. Considering the ethnomedicinal values of I. aquatica against As poisoning, the current study was designed to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of aqueous extract of I. aquatica against As-intoxication. Since I. aquatica is a dietary vegetable, the edible (aqueous) extract was chosen in this study. Significant attempts were made to elucidate the mechanism of actions against arsenicosis and to establish the correlation between observed effects with the phytochemicals present within the test material.Figure 1

Bottom Line: In addition, the serum biochemical and haematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) altered in the NaAsO2-treated animals.However, concurrent administration of AEIA (100 mg/ml) could significantly reinstate the NaAsO2-induced pathogenesis.Presence of substantial quantities of dietary antioxidants within AEIA would be responsible for overall protective effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Advanced Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032, India. tarunkduaju@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used against Arsenic (As) poisoning in folk medicines in India. The present study was designed to explore the therapeutic role of aqueous extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against As-intoxication.

Methods: AEIA was chemically standardized by spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis. The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on isolated murine hepatocytes. The effect on redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM) + AEIA (400 μg/ml). The protective effect of AEIA (400 μg/ml) in expressions of apoptotic proteins were estimated in vitro. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, biochemical, As bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to ensure the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against NaAsO2 (10 mg/kg) intoxication.

Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of substantial quantities of phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and ascorbic acid in AEIA. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with AEIA (0-400 μg/ml) + NaAsO2 (10 μM) exerted a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect. Incubation of murine hepatocytes with NaAsO2 (10 μM, ~ IC50) induced apoptosis via augmenting oxidative stress. NaAsO2 treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced levels of ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.05-0.01) and GSH (p < 0.01) levels. However, AEIA (400 μg/ml) + NaAsO2 (10 μM) could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reinstate the aforementioned parameters to near-normal status. Besides, AEIA (400 μg/ml) could significantly counteract (p <0.05-0.01) ROS mediated alteration in the expressions of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, BAD, Cyt C, Apaf 1, caspases, Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, NaAsO2 (10 mg/kg) treatment in mice caused significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) elevated As bioaccumulation, ATP levels, DNA fragmentations and oxidative stress in the liver, kidney, heart, brain and testes along with alteration in cytoarchitecture of these organs. In addition, the serum biochemical and haematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) altered in the NaAsO2-treated animals. However, concurrent administration of AEIA (100 mg/ml) could significantly reinstate the NaAsO2-induced pathogenesis.

Conclusion: Presence of substantial quantities of dietary antioxidants within AEIA would be responsible for overall protective effect.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus