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Epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saesie Tsaeda-emba district, eastern Tigray, northern Ethiopia.

Bsrat A, Berhe N, Balkew M, Yohannes M, Teklu T, Gadisa E, Medhin G, Abera A - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: Environmental and host risk factors significantly associated with CL distribution were age, study Peasant associations, presence of cave/gorge, walls with cracks and/or holes, presence of hyrax, animal burrow, animal dung and farm land near to residents' houses.The present study is a starter for wider investigation into the mode of its transmission, incrimination of sandfly vectors and possible animal reservoirs.Detailed information will be the basis to launch effective control of CL in the area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle University, P O Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia. evermam@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the endemic and neglected diseases known to exist in Ethiopian highlands. However, little is known about its epidemiological characteristics. Hence, this study was initiated and conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 to assess the epidemiological situation of CL in Saesie Tsaeda-emba District.

Methods: A cross sectional design was employed in six randomly selected Peasant associations and a house to house survey was carried out in the District. Detailed clinical assessment, and smear and culture for Leishmania parasite detection were done to confirm clinical suspension. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-1) sequences was used to type isolates. Sandfly collection was also conducted in possible micro-habitats of the target areas.

Results: The overall prevalence of CL in the District was 14.0% (6.7% for active lesion and 7.3% for scar) with the highest prevalence amongst the age group of 10-19 years. Field isolates typed were L. aethiopica. Environmental and host risk factors significantly associated with CL distribution were age, study Peasant associations, presence of cave/gorge, walls with cracks and/or holes, presence of hyrax, animal burrow, animal dung and farm land near to residents' houses. Five phlebotomine sandflies, Phlebotomus longipes, Sergentomyia bedfordi, S.africana, S.schwetzi and S.antenata were captured.

Conclusion: All the precipitating factors in the area are indicative of the public health importance of CL although there has been little attention given. The present study is a starter for wider investigation into the mode of its transmission, incrimination of sandfly vectors and possible animal reservoirs. Detailed information will be the basis to launch effective control of CL in the area.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

PCR products of ITS-1 from promastigote DNA of field isolate and reference strains with primer pairs LISTR/L5.8S (Nov.2011-Apr.2012).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig1: PCR products of ITS-1 from promastigote DNA of field isolate and reference strains with primer pairs LISTR/L5.8S (Nov.2011-Apr.2012).

Mentions: The PCR of the ITS-1 with primer pairs LISTR/L5.8S gave approximately 328 bp product for both reference strains and field isolates from cultured promastigotes DNA of the study District (Figure 1). When the ITS-1 PCR product was digested by Hae III, L.aethiopica reference strains and field isolates produced three bands of size 202 bp, 55 bp and 23 bp (Figure 2). When the ITS-1 PCR product was digested by Hha I, L. aethiopica reference strain and the field isolates produced a band approximately 162 bp size. According to the sequence information from gene bank, the 162 bp is actually a superimposition of 164 bp and 162 bp bands (accession no AJ000311). Two bands of about 88 bp and 240 bp sizes were produced for L. major whereas, L. infantum and L. donovani gave single band size of 328 bp showing that there is no restriction site in the ITS-1 region for these strains. Thus, the field isolates produced identical bands with L. aethiopica reference strain.Figure 1


Epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saesie Tsaeda-emba district, eastern Tigray, northern Ethiopia.

Bsrat A, Berhe N, Balkew M, Yohannes M, Teklu T, Gadisa E, Medhin G, Abera A - Parasit Vectors (2015)

PCR products of ITS-1 from promastigote DNA of field isolate and reference strains with primer pairs LISTR/L5.8S (Nov.2011-Apr.2012).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359476&req=5

Fig1: PCR products of ITS-1 from promastigote DNA of field isolate and reference strains with primer pairs LISTR/L5.8S (Nov.2011-Apr.2012).
Mentions: The PCR of the ITS-1 with primer pairs LISTR/L5.8S gave approximately 328 bp product for both reference strains and field isolates from cultured promastigotes DNA of the study District (Figure 1). When the ITS-1 PCR product was digested by Hae III, L.aethiopica reference strains and field isolates produced three bands of size 202 bp, 55 bp and 23 bp (Figure 2). When the ITS-1 PCR product was digested by Hha I, L. aethiopica reference strain and the field isolates produced a band approximately 162 bp size. According to the sequence information from gene bank, the 162 bp is actually a superimposition of 164 bp and 162 bp bands (accession no AJ000311). Two bands of about 88 bp and 240 bp sizes were produced for L. major whereas, L. infantum and L. donovani gave single band size of 328 bp showing that there is no restriction site in the ITS-1 region for these strains. Thus, the field isolates produced identical bands with L. aethiopica reference strain.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Environmental and host risk factors significantly associated with CL distribution were age, study Peasant associations, presence of cave/gorge, walls with cracks and/or holes, presence of hyrax, animal burrow, animal dung and farm land near to residents' houses.The present study is a starter for wider investigation into the mode of its transmission, incrimination of sandfly vectors and possible animal reservoirs.Detailed information will be the basis to launch effective control of CL in the area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle University, P O Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia. evermam@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the endemic and neglected diseases known to exist in Ethiopian highlands. However, little is known about its epidemiological characteristics. Hence, this study was initiated and conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 to assess the epidemiological situation of CL in Saesie Tsaeda-emba District.

Methods: A cross sectional design was employed in six randomly selected Peasant associations and a house to house survey was carried out in the District. Detailed clinical assessment, and smear and culture for Leishmania parasite detection were done to confirm clinical suspension. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-1) sequences was used to type isolates. Sandfly collection was also conducted in possible micro-habitats of the target areas.

Results: The overall prevalence of CL in the District was 14.0% (6.7% for active lesion and 7.3% for scar) with the highest prevalence amongst the age group of 10-19 years. Field isolates typed were L. aethiopica. Environmental and host risk factors significantly associated with CL distribution were age, study Peasant associations, presence of cave/gorge, walls with cracks and/or holes, presence of hyrax, animal burrow, animal dung and farm land near to residents' houses. Five phlebotomine sandflies, Phlebotomus longipes, Sergentomyia bedfordi, S.africana, S.schwetzi and S.antenata were captured.

Conclusion: All the precipitating factors in the area are indicative of the public health importance of CL although there has been little attention given. The present study is a starter for wider investigation into the mode of its transmission, incrimination of sandfly vectors and possible animal reservoirs. Detailed information will be the basis to launch effective control of CL in the area.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus