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Egg-in-cube: design and fabrication of a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface.

Huang W, Arai F, Kawahara T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used.Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell.The proposed "Egg-in-Cube" with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Functions Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan.

ABSTRACT
An eggshell is a porous microstructure that regulates the passage of gases to allow respiration. The chick embryo and its circulatory system enclosed by the eggshell has become an important model for biomedical research such as the control of angiogenesis, cancer therapy, and drug delivery test, because the use of embryo is ethically acceptable and it is inexpensive and small. However, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels cannot be accessed freely and has poor observability because the eggshell is tough and cannot be seen through, which limits its application. In this study, a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface is proposed, which allows the total amount of oxygen to pass into the egg for the chick embryo culturing and has high observability and accessibility for embryo manipulation. First, a 40-mm enclosed cubic-shaped eggshell consisting of a membrane structure and a rigid frame structure is designed, and then the threshold of the membrane thickness suitable for the embryo survival is figured out according to the oxygen-permeability of the membrane structure. The designed artificial eggshell was actually fabricated by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polycarbonate (PC) in the current study. Using the fabricated eggshell, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels can be observed from multiple directions. To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used. Since the surface of the eggshell is transparent, chick embryo tissue development could be observed during the culture period. Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell. The proposed "Egg-in-Cube" with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Developed cubic eggshell and the observation and manipulation of chick embryo.(a) Overview of the fabricated cubic eggshell with a chick embryo. The membrane thickness is 0.3 mm, the length of one side is 40 mm, and the total volume of the cubic eggshell is approximately 50 mL. (b) Posture change of the chick embryo in the cubic eggshell. It is possible to observe the chick embryo from multiple directions by changing the posture of the chick embryo. (c) Manipulation of the chick embryo in the cubic eggshell fabricated using 0.3-mm-thick PDMS membranes. Holes were made with tweezers, and then small grippers with a diameter of 2 mm were inserted inside the shell to manipulate the tissues of the chick embryo under the microscope.
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pone.0118624.g003: Developed cubic eggshell and the observation and manipulation of chick embryo.(a) Overview of the fabricated cubic eggshell with a chick embryo. The membrane thickness is 0.3 mm, the length of one side is 40 mm, and the total volume of the cubic eggshell is approximately 50 mL. (b) Posture change of the chick embryo in the cubic eggshell. It is possible to observe the chick embryo from multiple directions by changing the posture of the chick embryo. (c) Manipulation of the chick embryo in the cubic eggshell fabricated using 0.3-mm-thick PDMS membranes. Holes were made with tweezers, and then small grippers with a diameter of 2 mm were inserted inside the shell to manipulate the tissues of the chick embryo under the microscope.

Mentions: An overview of the fabricated cubic eggshell with a chick embryo is shown in Fig. 3. The use of accessible material and ease of the fabrication process could contribute to mass production of eggshells and reduction of fabrication costs (low-cost and disposable).


Egg-in-cube: design and fabrication of a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface.

Huang W, Arai F, Kawahara T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Developed cubic eggshell and the observation and manipulation of chick embryo.(a) Overview of the fabricated cubic eggshell with a chick embryo. The membrane thickness is 0.3 mm, the length of one side is 40 mm, and the total volume of the cubic eggshell is approximately 50 mL. (b) Posture change of the chick embryo in the cubic eggshell. It is possible to observe the chick embryo from multiple directions by changing the posture of the chick embryo. (c) Manipulation of the chick embryo in the cubic eggshell fabricated using 0.3-mm-thick PDMS membranes. Holes were made with tweezers, and then small grippers with a diameter of 2 mm were inserted inside the shell to manipulate the tissues of the chick embryo under the microscope.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359160&req=5

pone.0118624.g003: Developed cubic eggshell and the observation and manipulation of chick embryo.(a) Overview of the fabricated cubic eggshell with a chick embryo. The membrane thickness is 0.3 mm, the length of one side is 40 mm, and the total volume of the cubic eggshell is approximately 50 mL. (b) Posture change of the chick embryo in the cubic eggshell. It is possible to observe the chick embryo from multiple directions by changing the posture of the chick embryo. (c) Manipulation of the chick embryo in the cubic eggshell fabricated using 0.3-mm-thick PDMS membranes. Holes were made with tweezers, and then small grippers with a diameter of 2 mm were inserted inside the shell to manipulate the tissues of the chick embryo under the microscope.
Mentions: An overview of the fabricated cubic eggshell with a chick embryo is shown in Fig. 3. The use of accessible material and ease of the fabrication process could contribute to mass production of eggshells and reduction of fabrication costs (low-cost and disposable).

Bottom Line: To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used.Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell.The proposed "Egg-in-Cube" with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Functions Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan.

ABSTRACT
An eggshell is a porous microstructure that regulates the passage of gases to allow respiration. The chick embryo and its circulatory system enclosed by the eggshell has become an important model for biomedical research such as the control of angiogenesis, cancer therapy, and drug delivery test, because the use of embryo is ethically acceptable and it is inexpensive and small. However, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels cannot be accessed freely and has poor observability because the eggshell is tough and cannot be seen through, which limits its application. In this study, a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface is proposed, which allows the total amount of oxygen to pass into the egg for the chick embryo culturing and has high observability and accessibility for embryo manipulation. First, a 40-mm enclosed cubic-shaped eggshell consisting of a membrane structure and a rigid frame structure is designed, and then the threshold of the membrane thickness suitable for the embryo survival is figured out according to the oxygen-permeability of the membrane structure. The designed artificial eggshell was actually fabricated by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polycarbonate (PC) in the current study. Using the fabricated eggshell, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels can be observed from multiple directions. To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used. Since the surface of the eggshell is transparent, chick embryo tissue development could be observed during the culture period. Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell. The proposed "Egg-in-Cube" with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus