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Egg-in-cube: design and fabrication of a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface.

Huang W, Arai F, Kawahara T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used.Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell.The proposed "Egg-in-Cube" with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Functions Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan.

ABSTRACT
An eggshell is a porous microstructure that regulates the passage of gases to allow respiration. The chick embryo and its circulatory system enclosed by the eggshell has become an important model for biomedical research such as the control of angiogenesis, cancer therapy, and drug delivery test, because the use of embryo is ethically acceptable and it is inexpensive and small. However, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels cannot be accessed freely and has poor observability because the eggshell is tough and cannot be seen through, which limits its application. In this study, a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface is proposed, which allows the total amount of oxygen to pass into the egg for the chick embryo culturing and has high observability and accessibility for embryo manipulation. First, a 40-mm enclosed cubic-shaped eggshell consisting of a membrane structure and a rigid frame structure is designed, and then the threshold of the membrane thickness suitable for the embryo survival is figured out according to the oxygen-permeability of the membrane structure. The designed artificial eggshell was actually fabricated by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polycarbonate (PC) in the current study. Using the fabricated eggshell, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels can be observed from multiple directions. To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used. Since the surface of the eggshell is transparent, chick embryo tissue development could be observed during the culture period. Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell. The proposed "Egg-in-Cube" with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Required oxygen permeation rate in the PDMS membrane for chick embryo culturing.The permeating rates of 0.1-, 0.5-, and 1.00-mm-thick PDMS membranes were measured with an oxygen permeation analyzer, and the normalized results were 1150, 413, and 191 mL/day, respectively. In the current study, the lowest oxygen volume for embryo survival was estimated to be 286 mL/day (corresponding to a membrane thickness 0.55 mm), according to the total oxygen volume (6 L) consumed by a chick embryo during the embryonic period (21 days) [42].
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pone.0118624.g002: Required oxygen permeation rate in the PDMS membrane for chick embryo culturing.The permeating rates of 0.1-, 0.5-, and 1.00-mm-thick PDMS membranes were measured with an oxygen permeation analyzer, and the normalized results were 1150, 413, and 191 mL/day, respectively. In the current study, the lowest oxygen volume for embryo survival was estimated to be 286 mL/day (corresponding to a membrane thickness 0.55 mm), according to the total oxygen volume (6 L) consumed by a chick embryo during the embryonic period (21 days) [42].

Mentions: Fig. 2 shows an estimated curve of oxygen permeation in PDMS membranes of different thickness, which was calculated from Equation (1). The measured data for oxygen permeation were obtained from an oxygen permeation analyzer (Oxygen Permeation Analyzer 8001, Systech Illinois Inc.), which matched the estimated values well. From this figure, we can estimate the effectiveness of the thickness of the PDMS membrane for culturing. The effectiveness of the thickness of the PDMS membrane surface was then confirmed experimentally.


Egg-in-cube: design and fabrication of a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface.

Huang W, Arai F, Kawahara T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Required oxygen permeation rate in the PDMS membrane for chick embryo culturing.The permeating rates of 0.1-, 0.5-, and 1.00-mm-thick PDMS membranes were measured with an oxygen permeation analyzer, and the normalized results were 1150, 413, and 191 mL/day, respectively. In the current study, the lowest oxygen volume for embryo survival was estimated to be 286 mL/day (corresponding to a membrane thickness 0.55 mm), according to the total oxygen volume (6 L) consumed by a chick embryo during the embryonic period (21 days) [42].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359160&req=5

pone.0118624.g002: Required oxygen permeation rate in the PDMS membrane for chick embryo culturing.The permeating rates of 0.1-, 0.5-, and 1.00-mm-thick PDMS membranes were measured with an oxygen permeation analyzer, and the normalized results were 1150, 413, and 191 mL/day, respectively. In the current study, the lowest oxygen volume for embryo survival was estimated to be 286 mL/day (corresponding to a membrane thickness 0.55 mm), according to the total oxygen volume (6 L) consumed by a chick embryo during the embryonic period (21 days) [42].
Mentions: Fig. 2 shows an estimated curve of oxygen permeation in PDMS membranes of different thickness, which was calculated from Equation (1). The measured data for oxygen permeation were obtained from an oxygen permeation analyzer (Oxygen Permeation Analyzer 8001, Systech Illinois Inc.), which matched the estimated values well. From this figure, we can estimate the effectiveness of the thickness of the PDMS membrane for culturing. The effectiveness of the thickness of the PDMS membrane surface was then confirmed experimentally.

Bottom Line: To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used.Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell.The proposed "Egg-in-Cube" with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Functions Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan.

ABSTRACT
An eggshell is a porous microstructure that regulates the passage of gases to allow respiration. The chick embryo and its circulatory system enclosed by the eggshell has become an important model for biomedical research such as the control of angiogenesis, cancer therapy, and drug delivery test, because the use of embryo is ethically acceptable and it is inexpensive and small. However, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels cannot be accessed freely and has poor observability because the eggshell is tough and cannot be seen through, which limits its application. In this study, a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface is proposed, which allows the total amount of oxygen to pass into the egg for the chick embryo culturing and has high observability and accessibility for embryo manipulation. First, a 40-mm enclosed cubic-shaped eggshell consisting of a membrane structure and a rigid frame structure is designed, and then the threshold of the membrane thickness suitable for the embryo survival is figured out according to the oxygen-permeability of the membrane structure. The designed artificial eggshell was actually fabricated by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polycarbonate (PC) in the current study. Using the fabricated eggshell, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels can be observed from multiple directions. To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used. Since the surface of the eggshell is transparent, chick embryo tissue development could be observed during the culture period. Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell. The proposed "Egg-in-Cube" with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus