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Diversity and antioxidant activity of culturable endophytic fungi from alpine plants of Rhodiola crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis.

Cui JL, Guo TT, Ren ZX, Zhang NS, Wang ML - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Except for 12 unidentified fungi (6.67%), all others were affiliated to at least 57 genera in 20 orders of four phyla, namely, Ascomycota (88.89%), Basidiomycota (2.78%), Zygomycota (1.11%), and Glomeromycota (0.56%), which exhibited high abundance and diversity.Further research also provided the first evidence that Rac12 could produce salidrosides and p-tyrosol.Results suggested that versatile endophytic fungi associated with Rhodiola known as antioxidants could be exploited as potential sources of novel antioxidant products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Chemistry, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Rhodiola spp. are rare and endangered alpine plants widely used as medicines and food additives by many civilizations since ancient times. Their main effective ingredients (such as salidroside and p-tyrosol) are praised to exhibit pharmacologic effects on high-altitude sickness and possess anti-aging and other adaptogenic capacities based on their antioxidant properties. In this study, 347 endophytic fungi were isolated from R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, and the molecular diversity and antioxidant activities of these fungi were investigated for the first time. These fungi were categorized into 180 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics, and their rRNA gene ITS sequences were analyzed by BLAST search in the GenBank database. Except for 12 unidentified fungi (6.67%), all others were affiliated to at least 57 genera in 20 orders of four phyla, namely, Ascomycota (88.89%), Basidiomycota (2.78%), Zygomycota (1.11%), and Glomeromycota (0.56%), which exhibited high abundance and diversity. Antioxidant assay showed that the DPPH radical-scavenging rates of 114 isolates (63.33%) were >50%, and those of five isolates (Rct45, Rct63, Rct64, Rac76, and Rsc57) were >90%. The EC50 values of five antioxidant assays suggested significant potential of these fungi on scavenging DPPH•, O2-•, and OH• radicals, as well as scavenging nitrite and chelating Fe2+, which showed preference and selection between endophytic fungi and their hosts. Further research also provided the first evidence that Rac12 could produce salidrosides and p-tyrosol. Results suggested that versatile endophytic fungi associated with Rhodiola known as antioxidants could be exploited as potential sources of novel antioxidant products.

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Location of three Rhodiola plants and distributions of endophytic fungi in their hosts.Endophytic fungi were affiliated to at least 11, 13, and 14 orders in R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, respectively, which exhibited high diversity.
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pone.0118204.g001: Location of three Rhodiola plants and distributions of endophytic fungi in their hosts.Endophytic fungi were affiliated to at least 11, 13, and 14 orders in R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, respectively, which exhibited high diversity.

Mentions: Rhodiola rosea, also known as rhodiola, rosenroot, orpin rose, roseroot, golden root, or arctic root [1], is a perennial herbaceous plant that belongs to the family Crassulaceae and genus Rhodiola [2]. This species is mainly distributed in high altitudes of >2,000 m in the Arctic and mountainous regions throughout Asia and Europe [2]. This typical alpine plant has been widely used as an important food crop and folk medicine since ancient times by many countries, such as Sweden, Russia, India, and China [3,4]. More than 90 various species of Rhodiola have been identified, and at least 70 species are found in China [4]. Those Chinese species are mainly located in two radiated regions between the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau [5] and Changbai mountain in northeast China [6], which are about 4000 km away (Fig. 1). In China, three species, namely, Rhodiola crenulata (Rc), Rhodiola angusta (Ra), and Rhodiola sachalinensis (Rs), are significant in marketing and planting. Among these species, Rc is native to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau and the only original plant according to the “Pharmacopeia of China” [7]. Rs and Ra are representative species in northeast China and comprise the largest planting area; these two species are most widely used for dietary supplements and healthy medicine.


Diversity and antioxidant activity of culturable endophytic fungi from alpine plants of Rhodiola crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis.

Cui JL, Guo TT, Ren ZX, Zhang NS, Wang ML - PLoS ONE (2015)

Location of three Rhodiola plants and distributions of endophytic fungi in their hosts.Endophytic fungi were affiliated to at least 11, 13, and 14 orders in R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, respectively, which exhibited high diversity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359136&req=5

pone.0118204.g001: Location of three Rhodiola plants and distributions of endophytic fungi in their hosts.Endophytic fungi were affiliated to at least 11, 13, and 14 orders in R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, respectively, which exhibited high diversity.
Mentions: Rhodiola rosea, also known as rhodiola, rosenroot, orpin rose, roseroot, golden root, or arctic root [1], is a perennial herbaceous plant that belongs to the family Crassulaceae and genus Rhodiola [2]. This species is mainly distributed in high altitudes of >2,000 m in the Arctic and mountainous regions throughout Asia and Europe [2]. This typical alpine plant has been widely used as an important food crop and folk medicine since ancient times by many countries, such as Sweden, Russia, India, and China [3,4]. More than 90 various species of Rhodiola have been identified, and at least 70 species are found in China [4]. Those Chinese species are mainly located in two radiated regions between the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau [5] and Changbai mountain in northeast China [6], which are about 4000 km away (Fig. 1). In China, three species, namely, Rhodiola crenulata (Rc), Rhodiola angusta (Ra), and Rhodiola sachalinensis (Rs), are significant in marketing and planting. Among these species, Rc is native to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau and the only original plant according to the “Pharmacopeia of China” [7]. Rs and Ra are representative species in northeast China and comprise the largest planting area; these two species are most widely used for dietary supplements and healthy medicine.

Bottom Line: Except for 12 unidentified fungi (6.67%), all others were affiliated to at least 57 genera in 20 orders of four phyla, namely, Ascomycota (88.89%), Basidiomycota (2.78%), Zygomycota (1.11%), and Glomeromycota (0.56%), which exhibited high abundance and diversity.Further research also provided the first evidence that Rac12 could produce salidrosides and p-tyrosol.Results suggested that versatile endophytic fungi associated with Rhodiola known as antioxidants could be exploited as potential sources of novel antioxidant products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Chemistry, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Rhodiola spp. are rare and endangered alpine plants widely used as medicines and food additives by many civilizations since ancient times. Their main effective ingredients (such as salidroside and p-tyrosol) are praised to exhibit pharmacologic effects on high-altitude sickness and possess anti-aging and other adaptogenic capacities based on their antioxidant properties. In this study, 347 endophytic fungi were isolated from R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, and the molecular diversity and antioxidant activities of these fungi were investigated for the first time. These fungi were categorized into 180 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics, and their rRNA gene ITS sequences were analyzed by BLAST search in the GenBank database. Except for 12 unidentified fungi (6.67%), all others were affiliated to at least 57 genera in 20 orders of four phyla, namely, Ascomycota (88.89%), Basidiomycota (2.78%), Zygomycota (1.11%), and Glomeromycota (0.56%), which exhibited high abundance and diversity. Antioxidant assay showed that the DPPH radical-scavenging rates of 114 isolates (63.33%) were >50%, and those of five isolates (Rct45, Rct63, Rct64, Rac76, and Rsc57) were >90%. The EC50 values of five antioxidant assays suggested significant potential of these fungi on scavenging DPPH•, O2-•, and OH• radicals, as well as scavenging nitrite and chelating Fe2+, which showed preference and selection between endophytic fungi and their hosts. Further research also provided the first evidence that Rac12 could produce salidrosides and p-tyrosol. Results suggested that versatile endophytic fungi associated with Rhodiola known as antioxidants could be exploited as potential sources of novel antioxidant products.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus