Limits...
Cartilage conduction is characterized by vibrations of the cartilaginous portion of the ear canal.

Nishimura T, Hosoi H, Saito O, Miyamae R, Shimokura R, Yamanaka T, Kitahara T, Levitt H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: When the water was additionally injected to reach the cartilaginous portion, the thresholds at 0.5 and 1 kHz dramatically decreased by 27.4 and 27.5 dB, respectively.CC generates airborne sound in the canal more efficiently than BC.The current findings suggest that CC is not a hybrid of AC and BC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cartilage conduction (CC) is a new form of sound transmission which is induced by a transducer being placed on the aural cartilage. Although the conventional forms of sound transmission to the cochlea are classified into air or bone conduction (AC or BC), previous study demonstrates that CC is not classified into AC or BC (Laryngoscope 124: 1214-1219). Next interesting issue is whether CC is a hybrid of AC and BC. Seven volunteers with normal hearing participated in this experiment. The threshold-shifts by water injection in the ear canal were measured. AC, BC, and CC thresholds at 0.5-4 kHz were measured in the 0%-, 40%-, and 80%-water injection conditions. In addition, CC thresholds were also measured for the 20%-, 60%-, 100%-, and overflowing-water injection conditions. The contributions of the vibrations of the cartilaginous portion were evaluated by the threshold-shifts. For AC and BC, the threshold-shifts by the water injection were 22.6-53.3 dB and within 14.9 dB at the frequency of 0.5-4 kHz, respectively. For CC, when the water was filled within the bony portion, the thresholds were elevated to the same degree as AC. When the water was additionally injected to reach the cartilaginous portion, the thresholds at 0.5 and 1 kHz dramatically decreased by 27.4 and 27.5 dB, respectively. In addition, despite blocking AC by the injected water, the CC thresholds in force level were remarkably lower than those for BC. The vibration of the cartilaginous portion contributes to the sound transmission, particularly in the low frequency range. Although the airborne sound is radiated into the ear canal in both BC and CC, the mechanism underlying its generation is different between them. CC generates airborne sound in the canal more efficiently than BC. The current findings suggest that CC is not a hybrid of AC and BC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Thresholds in the 80%-water injection condition for bone and cartilage conductions.The thresholds were represented in force level referring to 1 μN. Vertical bars indicate standard deviations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359134&req=5

pone.0120135.g006: Thresholds in the 80%-water injection condition for bone and cartilage conductions.The thresholds were represented in force level referring to 1 μN. Vertical bars indicate standard deviations.

Mentions: Fig. 6 shows the thresholds in force level (dB re 1 μN) for BC and CC in the 80%-water injection condition. A two–way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed statistically effects for stimulation condition (F [1, 6] = 80.56, p < 0.001) and frequency (F [3, 18] = 39.71, p < 0.001). The interaction between main factors was significant (F [3, 18] = 84.33, p < 0.001). The CC thresholds at 0.5 and 1 kHz were substantially lower than those for BC for the condition in which the water volume reached the cartilaginous portion of the ear canal. In contrast, the BC threshold at 2 kHz was significantly lower than that for CC. At the frequency of 4 kHz, the BC threshold was lower. However, no significance was observed between the BC and CC thresholds.


Cartilage conduction is characterized by vibrations of the cartilaginous portion of the ear canal.

Nishimura T, Hosoi H, Saito O, Miyamae R, Shimokura R, Yamanaka T, Kitahara T, Levitt H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Thresholds in the 80%-water injection condition for bone and cartilage conductions.The thresholds were represented in force level referring to 1 μN. Vertical bars indicate standard deviations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359134&req=5

pone.0120135.g006: Thresholds in the 80%-water injection condition for bone and cartilage conductions.The thresholds were represented in force level referring to 1 μN. Vertical bars indicate standard deviations.
Mentions: Fig. 6 shows the thresholds in force level (dB re 1 μN) for BC and CC in the 80%-water injection condition. A two–way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed statistically effects for stimulation condition (F [1, 6] = 80.56, p < 0.001) and frequency (F [3, 18] = 39.71, p < 0.001). The interaction between main factors was significant (F [3, 18] = 84.33, p < 0.001). The CC thresholds at 0.5 and 1 kHz were substantially lower than those for BC for the condition in which the water volume reached the cartilaginous portion of the ear canal. In contrast, the BC threshold at 2 kHz was significantly lower than that for CC. At the frequency of 4 kHz, the BC threshold was lower. However, no significance was observed between the BC and CC thresholds.

Bottom Line: When the water was additionally injected to reach the cartilaginous portion, the thresholds at 0.5 and 1 kHz dramatically decreased by 27.4 and 27.5 dB, respectively.CC generates airborne sound in the canal more efficiently than BC.The current findings suggest that CC is not a hybrid of AC and BC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cartilage conduction (CC) is a new form of sound transmission which is induced by a transducer being placed on the aural cartilage. Although the conventional forms of sound transmission to the cochlea are classified into air or bone conduction (AC or BC), previous study demonstrates that CC is not classified into AC or BC (Laryngoscope 124: 1214-1219). Next interesting issue is whether CC is a hybrid of AC and BC. Seven volunteers with normal hearing participated in this experiment. The threshold-shifts by water injection in the ear canal were measured. AC, BC, and CC thresholds at 0.5-4 kHz were measured in the 0%-, 40%-, and 80%-water injection conditions. In addition, CC thresholds were also measured for the 20%-, 60%-, 100%-, and overflowing-water injection conditions. The contributions of the vibrations of the cartilaginous portion were evaluated by the threshold-shifts. For AC and BC, the threshold-shifts by the water injection were 22.6-53.3 dB and within 14.9 dB at the frequency of 0.5-4 kHz, respectively. For CC, when the water was filled within the bony portion, the thresholds were elevated to the same degree as AC. When the water was additionally injected to reach the cartilaginous portion, the thresholds at 0.5 and 1 kHz dramatically decreased by 27.4 and 27.5 dB, respectively. In addition, despite blocking AC by the injected water, the CC thresholds in force level were remarkably lower than those for BC. The vibration of the cartilaginous portion contributes to the sound transmission, particularly in the low frequency range. Although the airborne sound is radiated into the ear canal in both BC and CC, the mechanism underlying its generation is different between them. CC generates airborne sound in the canal more efficiently than BC. The current findings suggest that CC is not a hybrid of AC and BC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus