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Uncovering the nutritional landscape of food.

Kim S, Sung J, Foo M, Jin YS, Kim PJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect.Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance.This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Republic of Korea; Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food's frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition.

No MeSH data available.


Correlations between the abundances of two nutrients (one nutrient is favorable and the other nutrient is unfavorable for NF) across the foods in each food category.For highly synergistic nutrient pairs (Φij > 2.0; blue) and the other pairs (Φij ≤ 2.0; grey), we present the respective averages and standard deviations of the correlations (see the Materials and Methods section and S1 Appendix, Section 6.2).
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pone.0118697.g003: Correlations between the abundances of two nutrients (one nutrient is favorable and the other nutrient is unfavorable for NF) across the foods in each food category.For highly synergistic nutrient pairs (Φij > 2.0; blue) and the other pairs (Φij ≤ 2.0; grey), we present the respective averages and standard deviations of the correlations (see the Materials and Methods section and S1 Appendix, Section 6.2).

Mentions: We now introduce Φijk, which is a measure of the degree of such synergism between two nutrients i and j for the high NF of food k (see the Materials and Methods section). Table D in S1 Appendix presents the list of synergistic nutrient pairs with large Φijks. In the case of choline and cholesterol, this nutrient pair exhibits strong synergism in ocean perch (Φijk = 22.0, P < 10-16), the highest-NF food among all foods in the protein-rich category. Previously, we found that choline and cholesterol are favorable and unfavorable bottleneck nutrients, respectively, in the foods of this category. Our analysis demonstrates that, when favorable and unfavorable nutrients were found in highly synergistic bottleneck pairs, in general, their quantities tended to be positively correlated across the foods in each of the four major categories (Fig. 3; P < 2.0×10-4 to P = 0.04). This positive correlation, which was identified among nutrients that have contradicting roles in influencing NF, contributes to the previously discussed difficulty in maintaining nutrient balance, i.e. simultaneously meeting the respective daily nutritional requirements, in irreducible food sets.


Uncovering the nutritional landscape of food.

Kim S, Sung J, Foo M, Jin YS, Kim PJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Correlations between the abundances of two nutrients (one nutrient is favorable and the other nutrient is unfavorable for NF) across the foods in each food category.For highly synergistic nutrient pairs (Φij > 2.0; blue) and the other pairs (Φij ≤ 2.0; grey), we present the respective averages and standard deviations of the correlations (see the Materials and Methods section and S1 Appendix, Section 6.2).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4359127&req=5

pone.0118697.g003: Correlations between the abundances of two nutrients (one nutrient is favorable and the other nutrient is unfavorable for NF) across the foods in each food category.For highly synergistic nutrient pairs (Φij > 2.0; blue) and the other pairs (Φij ≤ 2.0; grey), we present the respective averages and standard deviations of the correlations (see the Materials and Methods section and S1 Appendix, Section 6.2).
Mentions: We now introduce Φijk, which is a measure of the degree of such synergism between two nutrients i and j for the high NF of food k (see the Materials and Methods section). Table D in S1 Appendix presents the list of synergistic nutrient pairs with large Φijks. In the case of choline and cholesterol, this nutrient pair exhibits strong synergism in ocean perch (Φijk = 22.0, P < 10-16), the highest-NF food among all foods in the protein-rich category. Previously, we found that choline and cholesterol are favorable and unfavorable bottleneck nutrients, respectively, in the foods of this category. Our analysis demonstrates that, when favorable and unfavorable nutrients were found in highly synergistic bottleneck pairs, in general, their quantities tended to be positively correlated across the foods in each of the four major categories (Fig. 3; P < 2.0×10-4 to P = 0.04). This positive correlation, which was identified among nutrients that have contradicting roles in influencing NF, contributes to the previously discussed difficulty in maintaining nutrient balance, i.e. simultaneously meeting the respective daily nutritional requirements, in irreducible food sets.

Bottom Line: Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect.Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance.This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Republic of Korea; Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food's frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition.

No MeSH data available.