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Enrofloxacin and macrolides alone or in combination with rifampicin as antimicrobial treatment in a bovine model of acute Chlamydia psittaci infection.

Prohl A, Lohr M, Ostermann C, Liebler-Tenorio E, Berndt A, Schroedl W, Rothe M, Schubert E, Sachse K, Reinhold P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups.Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy.Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis at Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6-8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

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Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF).In the BALF, total cell count (a) remained within comparable limits at all examined time points in all groups. Numbers of neutrophilic granulocytes per mL (b) were highest 4 dpi and dropped continually until the last day of the study. Total protein concentration in BALF-supernatant remained constant throughout the whole study. Statistically significant differences between treated and untreated animals could neither be detected for protein levels nor for numbers of cells or neutrophils per mL in the BALF (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.05). C: untreated controls, R: rifampicin, En: enrofloxacin, En + R: enrofloxacin + rifampicin, Az: azithromycin, Az + R: azithromycin + rifampicin, Ery: erythromycin, Ery + R: erythromycin + rifampicin. dpi: days post inoculation.
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pone.0119736.g005: Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF).In the BALF, total cell count (a) remained within comparable limits at all examined time points in all groups. Numbers of neutrophilic granulocytes per mL (b) were highest 4 dpi and dropped continually until the last day of the study. Total protein concentration in BALF-supernatant remained constant throughout the whole study. Statistically significant differences between treated and untreated animals could neither be detected for protein levels nor for numbers of cells or neutrophils per mL in the BALF (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.05). C: untreated controls, R: rifampicin, En: enrofloxacin, En + R: enrofloxacin + rifampicin, Az: azithromycin, Az + R: azithromycin + rifampicin, Ery: erythromycin, Ery + R: erythromycin + rifampicin. dpi: days post inoculation.

Mentions: Cell count per mL BALF remained relatively constant throughout the study from 4 dpi (5.8e+05; 1.6e+05–1.3e+06) to 9 dpi (6.1e+05; 2.2e+04–1.3e+06) and 14 dpi (4.9e+05; 1.0+05–1.5e+06) (Fig. 5a). Neutrophil numbers per mL BALF (Fig. 5b) and percentage of neutrophils (data not shown) were maximal at 4 dpi (1.7e+05; 2.2e+03–7.4e+05) and decreased continually until 14 dpi (2.2e+04; 0.0e+00–1.2e+05). Neither cell count per mL BALF nor number of neutrophilic granulocytes per mL BALF nor percentage of neutrophils in the total amount of BALF cells differed significantly between treated animals and the untreated control group at any time. However, as shown in Fig. 5a and b, in macrolide treated animals absolute cell count and neutrophilic granulocytes were slightly reduced compared to animals of all other groups, but not significantly lower than in untreated controls (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. [32] with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.14).


Enrofloxacin and macrolides alone or in combination with rifampicin as antimicrobial treatment in a bovine model of acute Chlamydia psittaci infection.

Prohl A, Lohr M, Ostermann C, Liebler-Tenorio E, Berndt A, Schroedl W, Rothe M, Schubert E, Sachse K, Reinhold P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF).In the BALF, total cell count (a) remained within comparable limits at all examined time points in all groups. Numbers of neutrophilic granulocytes per mL (b) were highest 4 dpi and dropped continually until the last day of the study. Total protein concentration in BALF-supernatant remained constant throughout the whole study. Statistically significant differences between treated and untreated animals could neither be detected for protein levels nor for numbers of cells or neutrophils per mL in the BALF (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.05). C: untreated controls, R: rifampicin, En: enrofloxacin, En + R: enrofloxacin + rifampicin, Az: azithromycin, Az + R: azithromycin + rifampicin, Ery: erythromycin, Ery + R: erythromycin + rifampicin. dpi: days post inoculation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358964&req=5

pone.0119736.g005: Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF).In the BALF, total cell count (a) remained within comparable limits at all examined time points in all groups. Numbers of neutrophilic granulocytes per mL (b) were highest 4 dpi and dropped continually until the last day of the study. Total protein concentration in BALF-supernatant remained constant throughout the whole study. Statistically significant differences between treated and untreated animals could neither be detected for protein levels nor for numbers of cells or neutrophils per mL in the BALF (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.05). C: untreated controls, R: rifampicin, En: enrofloxacin, En + R: enrofloxacin + rifampicin, Az: azithromycin, Az + R: azithromycin + rifampicin, Ery: erythromycin, Ery + R: erythromycin + rifampicin. dpi: days post inoculation.
Mentions: Cell count per mL BALF remained relatively constant throughout the study from 4 dpi (5.8e+05; 1.6e+05–1.3e+06) to 9 dpi (6.1e+05; 2.2e+04–1.3e+06) and 14 dpi (4.9e+05; 1.0+05–1.5e+06) (Fig. 5a). Neutrophil numbers per mL BALF (Fig. 5b) and percentage of neutrophils (data not shown) were maximal at 4 dpi (1.7e+05; 2.2e+03–7.4e+05) and decreased continually until 14 dpi (2.2e+04; 0.0e+00–1.2e+05). Neither cell count per mL BALF nor number of neutrophilic granulocytes per mL BALF nor percentage of neutrophils in the total amount of BALF cells differed significantly between treated animals and the untreated control group at any time. However, as shown in Fig. 5a and b, in macrolide treated animals absolute cell count and neutrophilic granulocytes were slightly reduced compared to animals of all other groups, but not significantly lower than in untreated controls (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. [32] with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.14).

Bottom Line: Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups.Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy.Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis at Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6-8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus