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Enrofloxacin and macrolides alone or in combination with rifampicin as antimicrobial treatment in a bovine model of acute Chlamydia psittaci infection.

Prohl A, Lohr M, Ostermann C, Liebler-Tenorio E, Berndt A, Schroedl W, Rothe M, Schubert E, Sachse K, Reinhold P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups.Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy.Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis at Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6-8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

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Total clinical score.Following inoculation with Chlamydia psittaci, all animals developed signs of an acute respiratory illness, which were maximal 48 hours to 3 days after inoculation. Regardless of treatment, the total clinical score dropped back to baseline level within seven days the latest. Only on two occasions (3 dpi and 13 dpi) there were differences between treated groups and untreated controls that could be statistically secured. Significant differences to the untreated control group at the same day are indicated with asterisks (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P ≤ 0.05).
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pone.0119736.g002: Total clinical score.Following inoculation with Chlamydia psittaci, all animals developed signs of an acute respiratory illness, which were maximal 48 hours to 3 days after inoculation. Regardless of treatment, the total clinical score dropped back to baseline level within seven days the latest. Only on two occasions (3 dpi and 13 dpi) there were differences between treated groups and untreated controls that could be statistically secured. Significant differences to the untreated control group at the same day are indicated with asterisks (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P ≤ 0.05).

Mentions: In untreated controls, the total clinical score was slightly higher than in all other groups, but this was already visible before the beginning of antimicrobial treatment. Differences in the total clinical score between untreated controls and other groups were only statistically significant for the rifampicin treated group at 3 dpi (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. [32] with Hochberg-adjustment, P = 0.03) and the enrofloxacin + rifampicin treated group on 13 dpi (P = 0.02) (Fig. 2).


Enrofloxacin and macrolides alone or in combination with rifampicin as antimicrobial treatment in a bovine model of acute Chlamydia psittaci infection.

Prohl A, Lohr M, Ostermann C, Liebler-Tenorio E, Berndt A, Schroedl W, Rothe M, Schubert E, Sachse K, Reinhold P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Total clinical score.Following inoculation with Chlamydia psittaci, all animals developed signs of an acute respiratory illness, which were maximal 48 hours to 3 days after inoculation. Regardless of treatment, the total clinical score dropped back to baseline level within seven days the latest. Only on two occasions (3 dpi and 13 dpi) there were differences between treated groups and untreated controls that could be statistically secured. Significant differences to the untreated control group at the same day are indicated with asterisks (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P ≤ 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358964&req=5

pone.0119736.g002: Total clinical score.Following inoculation with Chlamydia psittaci, all animals developed signs of an acute respiratory illness, which were maximal 48 hours to 3 days after inoculation. Regardless of treatment, the total clinical score dropped back to baseline level within seven days the latest. Only on two occasions (3 dpi and 13 dpi) there were differences between treated groups and untreated controls that could be statistically secured. Significant differences to the untreated control group at the same day are indicated with asterisks (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P ≤ 0.05).
Mentions: In untreated controls, the total clinical score was slightly higher than in all other groups, but this was already visible before the beginning of antimicrobial treatment. Differences in the total clinical score between untreated controls and other groups were only statistically significant for the rifampicin treated group at 3 dpi (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. [32] with Hochberg-adjustment, P = 0.03) and the enrofloxacin + rifampicin treated group on 13 dpi (P = 0.02) (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups.Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy.Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis at Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6-8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus