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Enrofloxacin and macrolides alone or in combination with rifampicin as antimicrobial treatment in a bovine model of acute Chlamydia psittaci infection.

Prohl A, Lohr M, Ostermann C, Liebler-Tenorio E, Berndt A, Schroedl W, Rothe M, Schubert E, Sachse K, Reinhold P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups.Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy.Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis at Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6-8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

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Chlamydial genome copies in tissue 14 days after inoculation.The number of chlamydial genome copies per one million cells determined with qrtPCR was higher in altered lung tissue (Lu Les, triangles) than it was in macroscopically normal lung tissue (Lu, circles) and in mediastinal lymph node (Med Ln, squares). Chlamydial DNA was detected in altered lung tissue of all animals except for two enrofloxacin-treated animals, whereas in some animals of all treatment groups no chlamydial DNA was detected in normal lung tissue and in the mediastinal lymph node. There was a high degree of variation in chlamydial genome copy numbers within the treatment groups and no statistically significant differences between treated and untreated groups for the amount of chlamydial DNA in the tissues sampled 14 dpi (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.25). Black lines: medians, C: untreated controls, R: rifampicin, En: enrofloxacin, En + R: enrofloxacin + rifampicin, Az: azithromycin, Az + R: azithromycin + rifampicin, Ery: erythromycin, Ery + R: erythromycin + rifampicin. dpi: days post inoculation.
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pone.0119736.g001: Chlamydial genome copies in tissue 14 days after inoculation.The number of chlamydial genome copies per one million cells determined with qrtPCR was higher in altered lung tissue (Lu Les, triangles) than it was in macroscopically normal lung tissue (Lu, circles) and in mediastinal lymph node (Med Ln, squares). Chlamydial DNA was detected in altered lung tissue of all animals except for two enrofloxacin-treated animals, whereas in some animals of all treatment groups no chlamydial DNA was detected in normal lung tissue and in the mediastinal lymph node. There was a high degree of variation in chlamydial genome copy numbers within the treatment groups and no statistically significant differences between treated and untreated groups for the amount of chlamydial DNA in the tissues sampled 14 dpi (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.25). Black lines: medians, C: untreated controls, R: rifampicin, En: enrofloxacin, En + R: enrofloxacin + rifampicin, Az: azithromycin, Az + R: azithromycin + rifampicin, Ery: erythromycin, Ery + R: erythromycin + rifampicin. dpi: days post inoculation.

Mentions: Chlamydial DNA was detected by qrt-PCR in normal and altered lung tissue and in pieces of the mediastinal lymph node sampled at necropsy 14 dpi in animals of all groups. The amount of detected genome copies did not differ statistically significant between treated and untreated animals (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. [32] with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.25) (Fig. 1).


Enrofloxacin and macrolides alone or in combination with rifampicin as antimicrobial treatment in a bovine model of acute Chlamydia psittaci infection.

Prohl A, Lohr M, Ostermann C, Liebler-Tenorio E, Berndt A, Schroedl W, Rothe M, Schubert E, Sachse K, Reinhold P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Chlamydial genome copies in tissue 14 days after inoculation.The number of chlamydial genome copies per one million cells determined with qrtPCR was higher in altered lung tissue (Lu Les, triangles) than it was in macroscopically normal lung tissue (Lu, circles) and in mediastinal lymph node (Med Ln, squares). Chlamydial DNA was detected in altered lung tissue of all animals except for two enrofloxacin-treated animals, whereas in some animals of all treatment groups no chlamydial DNA was detected in normal lung tissue and in the mediastinal lymph node. There was a high degree of variation in chlamydial genome copy numbers within the treatment groups and no statistically significant differences between treated and untreated groups for the amount of chlamydial DNA in the tissues sampled 14 dpi (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.25). Black lines: medians, C: untreated controls, R: rifampicin, En: enrofloxacin, En + R: enrofloxacin + rifampicin, Az: azithromycin, Az + R: azithromycin + rifampicin, Ery: erythromycin, Ery + R: erythromycin + rifampicin. dpi: days post inoculation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358964&req=5

pone.0119736.g001: Chlamydial genome copies in tissue 14 days after inoculation.The number of chlamydial genome copies per one million cells determined with qrtPCR was higher in altered lung tissue (Lu Les, triangles) than it was in macroscopically normal lung tissue (Lu, circles) and in mediastinal lymph node (Med Ln, squares). Chlamydial DNA was detected in altered lung tissue of all animals except for two enrofloxacin-treated animals, whereas in some animals of all treatment groups no chlamydial DNA was detected in normal lung tissue and in the mediastinal lymph node. There was a high degree of variation in chlamydial genome copy numbers within the treatment groups and no statistically significant differences between treated and untreated groups for the amount of chlamydial DNA in the tissues sampled 14 dpi (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. (2008) with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.25). Black lines: medians, C: untreated controls, R: rifampicin, En: enrofloxacin, En + R: enrofloxacin + rifampicin, Az: azithromycin, Az + R: azithromycin + rifampicin, Ery: erythromycin, Ery + R: erythromycin + rifampicin. dpi: days post inoculation.
Mentions: Chlamydial DNA was detected by qrt-PCR in normal and altered lung tissue and in pieces of the mediastinal lymph node sampled at necropsy 14 dpi in animals of all groups. The amount of detected genome copies did not differ statistically significant between treated and untreated animals (many-to-one comparisons by Gao et al. [32] with Hochberg-adjustment, P > 0.25) (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups.Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy.Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis at Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6-8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus