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American marten respond to seismic lines in northern Canada at two spatial scales.

Tigner J, Bayne EM, Boutin S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The probability of occurrence at the home range scale declined with increasing seismic line density, and the inclusion of behavioral response to line density calculations improved model fit.Models that excluded seismic lines did not strongly explain occurrence.This approach provides the ecological context required to understand cause and effect relationships among socio-economic and ecological conservation goals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Integrated Landscape Management Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Development of hydrocarbon resources across northwest Canada has spurred economic prosperity and generated concerns over impacts to biodiversity. To balance these interests, numerous jurisdictions have adopted management thresholds that allow for limited energy development but minimize undesirable impacts to wildlife. Used for exploration, seismic lines are the most abundant linear feature in the boreal forest and exist at a variety of widths and recovery states. We used American marten (Martes americana) as a model species to measure how line attributes influence species' response to seismic lines, and asked whether responses to individual lines trigger population impacts. Marten response to seismic lines was strongly influenced by line width and recovery state. Compared to forest interiors, marten used open seismic lines ≥ 3 m wide less often, but used open lines ≤ 2 m wide and partially recovered lines ≥ 6 m wide similarly. Marten response to individual line types appeared to trigger population impacts. The probability of occurrence at the home range scale declined with increasing seismic line density, and the inclusion of behavioral response to line density calculations improved model fit. In our top performing model, we excluded seismic lines ≤ 2 m from our calculation of line density, and the probability of occurrence declined > 80% between home ranges with the lowest and highest line densities. Models that excluded seismic lines did not strongly explain occurrence. We show how wildlife-derived metrics can inform regulatory guidelines to increase the likelihood those guidelines meet intended management objectives. With respect to marten, not all seismic lines constitute disturbances, but avoidance of certain line types scales to population impacts. This approach provides the ecological context required to understand cause and effect relationships among socio-economic and ecological conservation goals.

No MeSH data available.


Examples of sampled seismic line types.In the field we identified and sampled along the following 6 types of seismic lines: (Top row, from upper left) 1) ≥ 6 m wide and open (open conventional); 2) ≥ 6 m wide and partially recovered (partial conventional); 3) ≥ 6 m and recovered (closed conventional); (Bottom row, from left) 4) open and ≤ 2 m wide (open 2 m); 5) open and 3–4 m wide (open 3–4 m); 6) open and 5 m wide (open 5 m). Photo credits: J. Tigner.
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pone.0118720.g002: Examples of sampled seismic line types.In the field we identified and sampled along the following 6 types of seismic lines: (Top row, from upper left) 1) ≥ 6 m wide and open (open conventional); 2) ≥ 6 m wide and partially recovered (partial conventional); 3) ≥ 6 m and recovered (closed conventional); (Bottom row, from left) 4) open and ≤ 2 m wide (open 2 m); 5) open and 3–4 m wide (open 3–4 m); 6) open and 5 m wide (open 5 m). Photo credits: J. Tigner.

Mentions: We evaluated marten use of seismic line types as the odds of an observation on a line relative to an observation in the forest interior (marten photographed at a camera = 1 vs. not photographed = 0). We pointed line cameras along a seismic line in 1 of the following treatments: 1) line ≥ 6 m wide and open (open conventional); 2) line ≥ 6 m wide and partially recovered (partial conventional); 3) line ≥ 6 m and recovered (closed conventional); 4) line open and ≤ 2 m wide (open 2 m); 5) line open and 3–4 m wide (open 3–4 m); 6) line open and 5 m wide (open 5 m) (Fig. 2). In the field we quantified the structural recovery state of conventional seismic lines by measuring horizontal cover (i.e., visual obstruction), shrub stem density, overhead cover, mode canopy height, coarse woody debris, and whether or not lines supported trees (woody stem ≥ 8 cm at dbh). See [20] for the full protocol description. We obtained equivalent measures in undisturbed forest plots adjacent lines for reference.


American marten respond to seismic lines in northern Canada at two spatial scales.

Tigner J, Bayne EM, Boutin S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Examples of sampled seismic line types.In the field we identified and sampled along the following 6 types of seismic lines: (Top row, from upper left) 1) ≥ 6 m wide and open (open conventional); 2) ≥ 6 m wide and partially recovered (partial conventional); 3) ≥ 6 m and recovered (closed conventional); (Bottom row, from left) 4) open and ≤ 2 m wide (open 2 m); 5) open and 3–4 m wide (open 3–4 m); 6) open and 5 m wide (open 5 m). Photo credits: J. Tigner.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358963&req=5

pone.0118720.g002: Examples of sampled seismic line types.In the field we identified and sampled along the following 6 types of seismic lines: (Top row, from upper left) 1) ≥ 6 m wide and open (open conventional); 2) ≥ 6 m wide and partially recovered (partial conventional); 3) ≥ 6 m and recovered (closed conventional); (Bottom row, from left) 4) open and ≤ 2 m wide (open 2 m); 5) open and 3–4 m wide (open 3–4 m); 6) open and 5 m wide (open 5 m). Photo credits: J. Tigner.
Mentions: We evaluated marten use of seismic line types as the odds of an observation on a line relative to an observation in the forest interior (marten photographed at a camera = 1 vs. not photographed = 0). We pointed line cameras along a seismic line in 1 of the following treatments: 1) line ≥ 6 m wide and open (open conventional); 2) line ≥ 6 m wide and partially recovered (partial conventional); 3) line ≥ 6 m and recovered (closed conventional); 4) line open and ≤ 2 m wide (open 2 m); 5) line open and 3–4 m wide (open 3–4 m); 6) line open and 5 m wide (open 5 m) (Fig. 2). In the field we quantified the structural recovery state of conventional seismic lines by measuring horizontal cover (i.e., visual obstruction), shrub stem density, overhead cover, mode canopy height, coarse woody debris, and whether or not lines supported trees (woody stem ≥ 8 cm at dbh). See [20] for the full protocol description. We obtained equivalent measures in undisturbed forest plots adjacent lines for reference.

Bottom Line: The probability of occurrence at the home range scale declined with increasing seismic line density, and the inclusion of behavioral response to line density calculations improved model fit.Models that excluded seismic lines did not strongly explain occurrence.This approach provides the ecological context required to understand cause and effect relationships among socio-economic and ecological conservation goals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Integrated Landscape Management Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Development of hydrocarbon resources across northwest Canada has spurred economic prosperity and generated concerns over impacts to biodiversity. To balance these interests, numerous jurisdictions have adopted management thresholds that allow for limited energy development but minimize undesirable impacts to wildlife. Used for exploration, seismic lines are the most abundant linear feature in the boreal forest and exist at a variety of widths and recovery states. We used American marten (Martes americana) as a model species to measure how line attributes influence species' response to seismic lines, and asked whether responses to individual lines trigger population impacts. Marten response to seismic lines was strongly influenced by line width and recovery state. Compared to forest interiors, marten used open seismic lines ≥ 3 m wide less often, but used open lines ≤ 2 m wide and partially recovered lines ≥ 6 m wide similarly. Marten response to individual line types appeared to trigger population impacts. The probability of occurrence at the home range scale declined with increasing seismic line density, and the inclusion of behavioral response to line density calculations improved model fit. In our top performing model, we excluded seismic lines ≤ 2 m from our calculation of line density, and the probability of occurrence declined > 80% between home ranges with the lowest and highest line densities. Models that excluded seismic lines did not strongly explain occurrence. We show how wildlife-derived metrics can inform regulatory guidelines to increase the likelihood those guidelines meet intended management objectives. With respect to marten, not all seismic lines constitute disturbances, but avoidance of certain line types scales to population impacts. This approach provides the ecological context required to understand cause and effect relationships among socio-economic and ecological conservation goals.

No MeSH data available.