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Gender-based differences on the association between salt-sensitive genes and obesity in Korean children aged between 8 and 9 years.

Lee M, Kim MK, Kim SM, Park H, Park CG, Park HK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: High sodium intake is associated with the development of chronic diseases such as obesity.BP, HOMA-IR, LDLc, TG, and the girls' sodium intake significantly increased, but HDLc significantly decreased with increase in BMI.The obesity risk increased with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 variants in boys, whereas it increased with GRK4 A486V and CYP11B2 variants in girls as sodium intake increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food and Nutrition, and Research Institute of Obesity Sciences, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: High sodium intake is associated with the development of chronic diseases such as obesity. Although its role in obesity remains controversial, there may be a correlation between salt sensitivity and the early onset of chronic diseases in obese children.

Methods: In all, 2,163 Korean children (1,106 boys and 1,057 girls) aged 8-9 years were recruited from seven elementary schools in Seoul. To evaluate whether obesity risk was modulated by the salt sensitivity, 11 SNPs related to salt sensitive genes (SSG) became the target of sodium intakes in obese children.

Results: BP, HOMA-IR, LDLc, TG, and the girls' sodium intake significantly increased, but HDLc significantly decreased with increase in BMI. Regardless of sex, the obesity risk was 5.27-fold (CI; 1.320-27.560) higher in the Q2 to Q5 of sodium intake adjusted by energy (4044.9-5058.9 mg/day) than in the lowest Q1 level (2287.6 mg/day) in obese children. BP was sensitively dependent on insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in all subjects; however, sodium intake may be an independent risk factor of obesity without increasing BP in girls. GRK4 A486V mutant homozygote was highly distributed in the obese group, but other SNPs had no impact. The obesity risk increased 7.06, 16.8, and 46.09-fold more in boys with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 mutants as sodium intake increased. Among girls, the obesity risk increased in GRK4 A486V heterozygote and CYP11β-2 mutant homozygote although sodium intake was relatively lower, implying that ACE, SLC12A, CYP11β-2, and GRK4 A486V polymorphisms showed gender-based differences with regard to interaction between sodium intake and obesity.

Conclusion: A high sodium intake markedly increased the obesity risk in variants of GRK4 A486V regardless of sex. The obesity risk increased with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 variants in boys, whereas it increased with GRK4 A486V and CYP11B2 variants in girls as sodium intake increased. Obese children with the specific gene variants are recommended to reduce their sodium intake.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for obesity risk by quintiles (Q1-Q5) of sodium intake with energy adjustment (residual-Na) were estimated in total children.The dietary sodium intakes increases, the risk of obesity significantly increases in obesity group (black bar; P-trend < 0.05), not in overweight group (gray bar). This figure was shown by comparison with the 1st quintile vs all the others combined. Multivariate logistic regression models after adjustment for age, sex, mother’s BMI, father’s BMI, and education levels (<10 years, 10~12, 13~16 years, and >16 years) of the mother and father, dietary fat, systolic blood pressure and regular physical activity (no, yes). Means of residual-Na in each quintile for total subjects are 2287.6, 2998.9, 3496.8, 4044.9 and 5058.9 mg/day.
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pone.0120111.g001: Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for obesity risk by quintiles (Q1-Q5) of sodium intake with energy adjustment (residual-Na) were estimated in total children.The dietary sodium intakes increases, the risk of obesity significantly increases in obesity group (black bar; P-trend < 0.05), not in overweight group (gray bar). This figure was shown by comparison with the 1st quintile vs all the others combined. Multivariate logistic regression models after adjustment for age, sex, mother’s BMI, father’s BMI, and education levels (<10 years, 10~12, 13~16 years, and >16 years) of the mother and father, dietary fat, systolic blood pressure and regular physical activity (no, yes). Means of residual-Na in each quintile for total subjects are 2287.6, 2998.9, 3496.8, 4044.9 and 5058.9 mg/day.

Mentions: Crude sodium intake with no energy adjustment (crude-Na) or sodium intake with energy adjustment (residual-Na) were divided into quintiles, the correlation of overweight with obesity risk was investigated. In the case of the crude-Na intake, the obesity risk was shown to be 6.02-fold higher in the highest sodium intake group (5058.9±619.6 mg/day) than in the lowest sodium intake group (2287.6±347.6 mg/day) in the obesity group. However, the obesity risk did not show linearity with crude-Na intake. (Data not shown) In the case of the residual-Na, the obesity risk was shown to be 2.8-fold higher in the highest sodium intake group than in the lowest sodium intake group within the obese group (p-trend = 0.03). Irrespective of the sex, when the summation of the 2nd (Q2) to 5th(Q5) quintile of sodium intake (the means of residual-Na from 4044.9 to 5058.9 mg/day) was compared with the 1st of quintile (Q1), the obesity risk increased 5.27-fold (CI; 1.320–27.560) in the obesity group. (P-trend = 0.05). (Fig. 1) However, the obesity risk was not changed in overweight children according to residual-Na. There was no gender difference in obesity risk by sodium intake was shown because of the difference in the basic sodium intake of the boys and girls (data not shown). From the aforementioned results, children aged between 8–9 years consuming 4000 mg/day or more of sodium showed to have a high risk of obesity.


Gender-based differences on the association between salt-sensitive genes and obesity in Korean children aged between 8 and 9 years.

Lee M, Kim MK, Kim SM, Park H, Park CG, Park HK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for obesity risk by quintiles (Q1-Q5) of sodium intake with energy adjustment (residual-Na) were estimated in total children.The dietary sodium intakes increases, the risk of obesity significantly increases in obesity group (black bar; P-trend < 0.05), not in overweight group (gray bar). This figure was shown by comparison with the 1st quintile vs all the others combined. Multivariate logistic regression models after adjustment for age, sex, mother’s BMI, father’s BMI, and education levels (<10 years, 10~12, 13~16 years, and >16 years) of the mother and father, dietary fat, systolic blood pressure and regular physical activity (no, yes). Means of residual-Na in each quintile for total subjects are 2287.6, 2998.9, 3496.8, 4044.9 and 5058.9 mg/day.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358955&req=5

pone.0120111.g001: Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for obesity risk by quintiles (Q1-Q5) of sodium intake with energy adjustment (residual-Na) were estimated in total children.The dietary sodium intakes increases, the risk of obesity significantly increases in obesity group (black bar; P-trend < 0.05), not in overweight group (gray bar). This figure was shown by comparison with the 1st quintile vs all the others combined. Multivariate logistic regression models after adjustment for age, sex, mother’s BMI, father’s BMI, and education levels (<10 years, 10~12, 13~16 years, and >16 years) of the mother and father, dietary fat, systolic blood pressure and regular physical activity (no, yes). Means of residual-Na in each quintile for total subjects are 2287.6, 2998.9, 3496.8, 4044.9 and 5058.9 mg/day.
Mentions: Crude sodium intake with no energy adjustment (crude-Na) or sodium intake with energy adjustment (residual-Na) were divided into quintiles, the correlation of overweight with obesity risk was investigated. In the case of the crude-Na intake, the obesity risk was shown to be 6.02-fold higher in the highest sodium intake group (5058.9±619.6 mg/day) than in the lowest sodium intake group (2287.6±347.6 mg/day) in the obesity group. However, the obesity risk did not show linearity with crude-Na intake. (Data not shown) In the case of the residual-Na, the obesity risk was shown to be 2.8-fold higher in the highest sodium intake group than in the lowest sodium intake group within the obese group (p-trend = 0.03). Irrespective of the sex, when the summation of the 2nd (Q2) to 5th(Q5) quintile of sodium intake (the means of residual-Na from 4044.9 to 5058.9 mg/day) was compared with the 1st of quintile (Q1), the obesity risk increased 5.27-fold (CI; 1.320–27.560) in the obesity group. (P-trend = 0.05). (Fig. 1) However, the obesity risk was not changed in overweight children according to residual-Na. There was no gender difference in obesity risk by sodium intake was shown because of the difference in the basic sodium intake of the boys and girls (data not shown). From the aforementioned results, children aged between 8–9 years consuming 4000 mg/day or more of sodium showed to have a high risk of obesity.

Bottom Line: High sodium intake is associated with the development of chronic diseases such as obesity.BP, HOMA-IR, LDLc, TG, and the girls' sodium intake significantly increased, but HDLc significantly decreased with increase in BMI.The obesity risk increased with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 variants in boys, whereas it increased with GRK4 A486V and CYP11B2 variants in girls as sodium intake increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food and Nutrition, and Research Institute of Obesity Sciences, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: High sodium intake is associated with the development of chronic diseases such as obesity. Although its role in obesity remains controversial, there may be a correlation between salt sensitivity and the early onset of chronic diseases in obese children.

Methods: In all, 2,163 Korean children (1,106 boys and 1,057 girls) aged 8-9 years were recruited from seven elementary schools in Seoul. To evaluate whether obesity risk was modulated by the salt sensitivity, 11 SNPs related to salt sensitive genes (SSG) became the target of sodium intakes in obese children.

Results: BP, HOMA-IR, LDLc, TG, and the girls' sodium intake significantly increased, but HDLc significantly decreased with increase in BMI. Regardless of sex, the obesity risk was 5.27-fold (CI; 1.320-27.560) higher in the Q2 to Q5 of sodium intake adjusted by energy (4044.9-5058.9 mg/day) than in the lowest Q1 level (2287.6 mg/day) in obese children. BP was sensitively dependent on insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in all subjects; however, sodium intake may be an independent risk factor of obesity without increasing BP in girls. GRK4 A486V mutant homozygote was highly distributed in the obese group, but other SNPs had no impact. The obesity risk increased 7.06, 16.8, and 46.09-fold more in boys with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 mutants as sodium intake increased. Among girls, the obesity risk increased in GRK4 A486V heterozygote and CYP11β-2 mutant homozygote although sodium intake was relatively lower, implying that ACE, SLC12A, CYP11β-2, and GRK4 A486V polymorphisms showed gender-based differences with regard to interaction between sodium intake and obesity.

Conclusion: A high sodium intake markedly increased the obesity risk in variants of GRK4 A486V regardless of sex. The obesity risk increased with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 variants in boys, whereas it increased with GRK4 A486V and CYP11B2 variants in girls as sodium intake increased. Obese children with the specific gene variants are recommended to reduce their sodium intake.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus