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Adenovirus entry from the apical surface of polarized epithelia is facilitated by the host innate immune response.

Kotha PL, Sharma P, Kolawole AO, Yan R, Alghamri MS, Brockman TL, Gomez-Cambronero J, Excoffon KJ - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

Bottom Line: Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection.We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity.In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8, a proinflammatory cytokine and a neutrophil chemoattractant, stimulates the protein expression and apical localization of CAREx8 via activation of AKT/S6K and inhibition of GSK3β. Apical CAREx8 tethers infiltrating neutrophils at the apical surface of a polarized epithelium. Moreover, neutrophils present on the apical-epithelial surface enhance adenovirus entry into the epithelium. These findings suggest that adenovirus evolved to co-opt an innate immune response pathway that stimulates the expression of its primary receptor, apical CAREx8, to allow the initial infection the intact epithelium. In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

IL-8 activates AKT/S6K and inactivates GSK3β to increase CAREx8 protein synthesis and AdV entry.A) The apical surfaces of polarized primary airway epithelial cells were either mock (0, white bars) or IL-8 (30 ng/ml, gray bars) treated for the indicated time and analyzed for CAREx8, CAREx7, or E-cadherin (E-cad) gene expression by qPCR, relative to GAPDH. B) The apical surfaces of polarized primary airway epithelial cells were mock (0) or IL-8 treated in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (CHX) and lysates were analyzed for CAREx8 and actin protein expression. Activation state of C) AKT, D) S6K and H) GSK3β was analyzed after IL-8 treatment by probing for the pAKT T308, pS6K T389, and pGSK3β S9 respectively. Lysates from polarized cells treated with IL-8 in the presence or absence of chemical inhibitors for E) AKT (Ly294002, 30 μM), F) S6K (RO3118220, 300 nM), I) GSK3β (SB415286, 45 μM, or LiCl, 10 mM), or J) a combination of S6K (RO3118220, 300 nM) and GSK3β (SB415286, 45 μM) were investigated for CAREx8 and actin protein expression. G) Polarized cells were either transfected or not with myc-tagged S6K plasmid prior to mock (0) or IL-8 treatment followed by the analysis of CAREx8 and actin protein expression from cell lysates. K) Polarized cells exposed to IL-8 in the presence or absence of the indicated chemical inhibitors for 4 h were washed and transduced with AdV5-βGal for 1 h. Genomic DNA was isolated 24 h post-transduction and analyzed for the fold change in Vg normalized to GAPDH and relative to mock. Error bars represent the SEM from three independent experiments: **p < 0.001 by one way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. L) A schematic of a predicted model showing that 1) IL-8 binds to the IL-8 receptor (CXCR1/2) and 2) activates AKT. 3) Activated AKT (pAKT T308) further activates S6K (pS6K T389) and 4) activated AKT directly and/or via inhibition of GSK3β (pGSK3β S9) stimulates CAREx8 protein synthesis. 5) Newly synthesized CAREx8 traffics to the apical surface and 6) can mediate apical AdV infection.
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ppat.1004696.g006: IL-8 activates AKT/S6K and inactivates GSK3β to increase CAREx8 protein synthesis and AdV entry.A) The apical surfaces of polarized primary airway epithelial cells were either mock (0, white bars) or IL-8 (30 ng/ml, gray bars) treated for the indicated time and analyzed for CAREx8, CAREx7, or E-cadherin (E-cad) gene expression by qPCR, relative to GAPDH. B) The apical surfaces of polarized primary airway epithelial cells were mock (0) or IL-8 treated in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (CHX) and lysates were analyzed for CAREx8 and actin protein expression. Activation state of C) AKT, D) S6K and H) GSK3β was analyzed after IL-8 treatment by probing for the pAKT T308, pS6K T389, and pGSK3β S9 respectively. Lysates from polarized cells treated with IL-8 in the presence or absence of chemical inhibitors for E) AKT (Ly294002, 30 μM), F) S6K (RO3118220, 300 nM), I) GSK3β (SB415286, 45 μM, or LiCl, 10 mM), or J) a combination of S6K (RO3118220, 300 nM) and GSK3β (SB415286, 45 μM) were investigated for CAREx8 and actin protein expression. G) Polarized cells were either transfected or not with myc-tagged S6K plasmid prior to mock (0) or IL-8 treatment followed by the analysis of CAREx8 and actin protein expression from cell lysates. K) Polarized cells exposed to IL-8 in the presence or absence of the indicated chemical inhibitors for 4 h were washed and transduced with AdV5-βGal for 1 h. Genomic DNA was isolated 24 h post-transduction and analyzed for the fold change in Vg normalized to GAPDH and relative to mock. Error bars represent the SEM from three independent experiments: **p < 0.001 by one way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. L) A schematic of a predicted model showing that 1) IL-8 binds to the IL-8 receptor (CXCR1/2) and 2) activates AKT. 3) Activated AKT (pAKT T308) further activates S6K (pS6K T389) and 4) activated AKT directly and/or via inhibition of GSK3β (pGSK3β S9) stimulates CAREx8 protein synthesis. 5) Newly synthesized CAREx8 traffics to the apical surface and 6) can mediate apical AdV infection.

Mentions: To determine the mechanism by which IL-8 stimulates endogenous CAREx8 protein expression, transcription of CAREx8-specific mRNA was first investigated in polarized Calu-3 cells (S2A Fig) and in polarized primary human airway epithelia (Fig. 6A). CAREx8, CAREx7, and E-cadherin mRNA levels did not significantly change within 4 h of IL-8 treatment (Fig. 6A) or when treated with different IL-8 concentrations (S2A Fig) indicating that the increase in CAREx8 was by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Accordingly, co-treatment of polarized Calu-3 (S2B Fig) or primary human airway epithelia (Fig. 6B, quantitated in S3A Fig) with IL-8 and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) abolished the IL-8 mediated increase in CAREx8 expression indicating that IL-8 acutely stimulates de novo CAREx8 protein synthesis.


Adenovirus entry from the apical surface of polarized epithelia is facilitated by the host innate immune response.

Kotha PL, Sharma P, Kolawole AO, Yan R, Alghamri MS, Brockman TL, Gomez-Cambronero J, Excoffon KJ - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

IL-8 activates AKT/S6K and inactivates GSK3β to increase CAREx8 protein synthesis and AdV entry.A) The apical surfaces of polarized primary airway epithelial cells were either mock (0, white bars) or IL-8 (30 ng/ml, gray bars) treated for the indicated time and analyzed for CAREx8, CAREx7, or E-cadherin (E-cad) gene expression by qPCR, relative to GAPDH. B) The apical surfaces of polarized primary airway epithelial cells were mock (0) or IL-8 treated in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (CHX) and lysates were analyzed for CAREx8 and actin protein expression. Activation state of C) AKT, D) S6K and H) GSK3β was analyzed after IL-8 treatment by probing for the pAKT T308, pS6K T389, and pGSK3β S9 respectively. Lysates from polarized cells treated with IL-8 in the presence or absence of chemical inhibitors for E) AKT (Ly294002, 30 μM), F) S6K (RO3118220, 300 nM), I) GSK3β (SB415286, 45 μM, or LiCl, 10 mM), or J) a combination of S6K (RO3118220, 300 nM) and GSK3β (SB415286, 45 μM) were investigated for CAREx8 and actin protein expression. G) Polarized cells were either transfected or not with myc-tagged S6K plasmid prior to mock (0) or IL-8 treatment followed by the analysis of CAREx8 and actin protein expression from cell lysates. K) Polarized cells exposed to IL-8 in the presence or absence of the indicated chemical inhibitors for 4 h were washed and transduced with AdV5-βGal for 1 h. Genomic DNA was isolated 24 h post-transduction and analyzed for the fold change in Vg normalized to GAPDH and relative to mock. Error bars represent the SEM from three independent experiments: **p < 0.001 by one way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. L) A schematic of a predicted model showing that 1) IL-8 binds to the IL-8 receptor (CXCR1/2) and 2) activates AKT. 3) Activated AKT (pAKT T308) further activates S6K (pS6K T389) and 4) activated AKT directly and/or via inhibition of GSK3β (pGSK3β S9) stimulates CAREx8 protein synthesis. 5) Newly synthesized CAREx8 traffics to the apical surface and 6) can mediate apical AdV infection.
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ppat.1004696.g006: IL-8 activates AKT/S6K and inactivates GSK3β to increase CAREx8 protein synthesis and AdV entry.A) The apical surfaces of polarized primary airway epithelial cells were either mock (0, white bars) or IL-8 (30 ng/ml, gray bars) treated for the indicated time and analyzed for CAREx8, CAREx7, or E-cadherin (E-cad) gene expression by qPCR, relative to GAPDH. B) The apical surfaces of polarized primary airway epithelial cells were mock (0) or IL-8 treated in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (CHX) and lysates were analyzed for CAREx8 and actin protein expression. Activation state of C) AKT, D) S6K and H) GSK3β was analyzed after IL-8 treatment by probing for the pAKT T308, pS6K T389, and pGSK3β S9 respectively. Lysates from polarized cells treated with IL-8 in the presence or absence of chemical inhibitors for E) AKT (Ly294002, 30 μM), F) S6K (RO3118220, 300 nM), I) GSK3β (SB415286, 45 μM, or LiCl, 10 mM), or J) a combination of S6K (RO3118220, 300 nM) and GSK3β (SB415286, 45 μM) were investigated for CAREx8 and actin protein expression. G) Polarized cells were either transfected or not with myc-tagged S6K plasmid prior to mock (0) or IL-8 treatment followed by the analysis of CAREx8 and actin protein expression from cell lysates. K) Polarized cells exposed to IL-8 in the presence or absence of the indicated chemical inhibitors for 4 h were washed and transduced with AdV5-βGal for 1 h. Genomic DNA was isolated 24 h post-transduction and analyzed for the fold change in Vg normalized to GAPDH and relative to mock. Error bars represent the SEM from three independent experiments: **p < 0.001 by one way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. L) A schematic of a predicted model showing that 1) IL-8 binds to the IL-8 receptor (CXCR1/2) and 2) activates AKT. 3) Activated AKT (pAKT T308) further activates S6K (pS6K T389) and 4) activated AKT directly and/or via inhibition of GSK3β (pGSK3β S9) stimulates CAREx8 protein synthesis. 5) Newly synthesized CAREx8 traffics to the apical surface and 6) can mediate apical AdV infection.
Mentions: To determine the mechanism by which IL-8 stimulates endogenous CAREx8 protein expression, transcription of CAREx8-specific mRNA was first investigated in polarized Calu-3 cells (S2A Fig) and in polarized primary human airway epithelia (Fig. 6A). CAREx8, CAREx7, and E-cadherin mRNA levels did not significantly change within 4 h of IL-8 treatment (Fig. 6A) or when treated with different IL-8 concentrations (S2A Fig) indicating that the increase in CAREx8 was by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Accordingly, co-treatment of polarized Calu-3 (S2B Fig) or primary human airway epithelia (Fig. 6B, quantitated in S3A Fig) with IL-8 and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) abolished the IL-8 mediated increase in CAREx8 expression indicating that IL-8 acutely stimulates de novo CAREx8 protein synthesis.

Bottom Line: Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection.We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity.In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8, a proinflammatory cytokine and a neutrophil chemoattractant, stimulates the protein expression and apical localization of CAREx8 via activation of AKT/S6K and inhibition of GSK3β. Apical CAREx8 tethers infiltrating neutrophils at the apical surface of a polarized epithelium. Moreover, neutrophils present on the apical-epithelial surface enhance adenovirus entry into the epithelium. These findings suggest that adenovirus evolved to co-opt an innate immune response pathway that stimulates the expression of its primary receptor, apical CAREx8, to allow the initial infection the intact epithelium. In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus