Limits...
Z-Spectrum analysis provides proton environment data (ZAPPED): a new two-pool technique for human gray and white matter.

Miyazaki M, Ouyang C, Zhou X, Murdoch JB, Fushimi Y, Okada T, Fujimoto K, Kido A, Arakawa Y, Miyamoto S, Togashi K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The mean restricted exchangeable proton fraction, Fr, was found to be 0.17 in gray matter (GM) and 0.28 in white matter (WM) in healthy subjects.The percentages of Ff and Fr in GM are similar for all ages, whereas Fr shows a tendency to decrease with age in WM among healthy subjects.The ZAPPED method provides a simple phenomenological approach to estimating fractions and apparent T2 values of free and restricted MT-active protons, and it may offer clinical useful information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MR Research, Toshiba Medical Research Institute, Vernon Hills, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
A new technique - Z-spectrum Analysis Provides Proton Environment Data (ZAPPED) - was used to map cross-relaxing free and restricted protons in nine healthy subjects plus two brain tumor patients at 3T. First, MT data were acquired over a wide symmetric range of frequency offsets, and then a trio of quantitative biomarkers, i.e., the apparent spin-spin relaxation times (T2,f, T2,r) in both free and restricted proton pools as well as the restricted pool fraction Fr, were mapped by fitting the measured Z-spectra to a simple two-Lorentzian compartment model on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The mean restricted exchangeable proton fraction, Fr, was found to be 0.17 in gray matter (GM) and 0.28 in white matter (WM) in healthy subjects. Corresponding mean values for apparent spin-spin relaxation times were 785 µs (T2,f) and 17.7 µs (T2,r) in GM, 672 µs (T2,f) and 23.4 µs (T2,r) in WM. The percentages of Ff and Fr in GM are similar for all ages, whereas Fr shows a tendency to decrease with age in WM among healthy subjects. The patient ZAPPED images show higher contrast between tumor and normal tissues than traditional T2-weighted and T1-weighted images. The ZAPPED method provides a simple phenomenological approach to estimating fractions and apparent T2 values of free and restricted MT-active protons, and it may offer clinical useful information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ZAPPED maps of Ff, Fr, T2,f, and T2,r in the two slices through the basal ganglia and cerebellum.Note that excellent contrast and image quality were obtained in the cerebellum region, and a complicated stripe pattern is displayed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358893&req=5

pone.0119915.g004: ZAPPED maps of Ff, Fr, T2,f, and T2,r in the two slices through the basal ganglia and cerebellum.Note that excellent contrast and image quality were obtained in the cerebellum region, and a complicated stripe pattern is displayed.

Mentions: Excellent contrast and image quality were obtained in the two slices through the basal ganglia and cerebellum as well. The ZAPPED maps of the cerebellum region display a complicated pattern of stripes, as shown in Fig. 4. Z-spectrum fractions Ff, Fr and apparent relaxation times T2,f, and T2,r were calculated for five locations in deep GM and WM at the basal ganglia level and appear in Table 2. These include the head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus and hippocampus.


Z-Spectrum analysis provides proton environment data (ZAPPED): a new two-pool technique for human gray and white matter.

Miyazaki M, Ouyang C, Zhou X, Murdoch JB, Fushimi Y, Okada T, Fujimoto K, Kido A, Arakawa Y, Miyamoto S, Togashi K - PLoS ONE (2015)

ZAPPED maps of Ff, Fr, T2,f, and T2,r in the two slices through the basal ganglia and cerebellum.Note that excellent contrast and image quality were obtained in the cerebellum region, and a complicated stripe pattern is displayed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358893&req=5

pone.0119915.g004: ZAPPED maps of Ff, Fr, T2,f, and T2,r in the two slices through the basal ganglia and cerebellum.Note that excellent contrast and image quality were obtained in the cerebellum region, and a complicated stripe pattern is displayed.
Mentions: Excellent contrast and image quality were obtained in the two slices through the basal ganglia and cerebellum as well. The ZAPPED maps of the cerebellum region display a complicated pattern of stripes, as shown in Fig. 4. Z-spectrum fractions Ff, Fr and apparent relaxation times T2,f, and T2,r were calculated for five locations in deep GM and WM at the basal ganglia level and appear in Table 2. These include the head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus and hippocampus.

Bottom Line: The mean restricted exchangeable proton fraction, Fr, was found to be 0.17 in gray matter (GM) and 0.28 in white matter (WM) in healthy subjects.The percentages of Ff and Fr in GM are similar for all ages, whereas Fr shows a tendency to decrease with age in WM among healthy subjects.The ZAPPED method provides a simple phenomenological approach to estimating fractions and apparent T2 values of free and restricted MT-active protons, and it may offer clinical useful information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MR Research, Toshiba Medical Research Institute, Vernon Hills, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
A new technique - Z-spectrum Analysis Provides Proton Environment Data (ZAPPED) - was used to map cross-relaxing free and restricted protons in nine healthy subjects plus two brain tumor patients at 3T. First, MT data were acquired over a wide symmetric range of frequency offsets, and then a trio of quantitative biomarkers, i.e., the apparent spin-spin relaxation times (T2,f, T2,r) in both free and restricted proton pools as well as the restricted pool fraction Fr, were mapped by fitting the measured Z-spectra to a simple two-Lorentzian compartment model on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The mean restricted exchangeable proton fraction, Fr, was found to be 0.17 in gray matter (GM) and 0.28 in white matter (WM) in healthy subjects. Corresponding mean values for apparent spin-spin relaxation times were 785 µs (T2,f) and 17.7 µs (T2,r) in GM, 672 µs (T2,f) and 23.4 µs (T2,r) in WM. The percentages of Ff and Fr in GM are similar for all ages, whereas Fr shows a tendency to decrease with age in WM among healthy subjects. The patient ZAPPED images show higher contrast between tumor and normal tissues than traditional T2-weighted and T1-weighted images. The ZAPPED method provides a simple phenomenological approach to estimating fractions and apparent T2 values of free and restricted MT-active protons, and it may offer clinical useful information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus