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Characterization and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

You Y, Xie M, Ren N, Cheng X, Li J, Ma X, Zou M, Vasseur L, Gurr GM, You M - BMC Genomics (2015)

Bottom Line: Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses.The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches.The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Ecology and Research Centre for Biodiversity and Eco-Safety, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. fzyouyc@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that play important roles in insects. The completion of several insect genome projects has enabled the identification and characterization of GST genes over recent years. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a species in which the GSTs are of special importance because this pest is highly resistant to many insecticides.

Results: A total of 22 putative cytosolic GSTs were identified from a published P. xylostella genome and grouped into 6 subclasses (with two unclassified). Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches. Intron sites and phases as well as GSH binding sites were strongly conserved within each of the subclasses in the GSTs of P. xylostella. Transcriptome-, RNA-seq- and qRT-PCR-based analyses showed that the GST genes were developmental stage- and strain-specifically expressed. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut or epidermis.

Conclusions: To date, this is the most comprehensive study on genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of the GST family in P. xylostella. The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins. Our findings provide a base for functional research on specific GST genes, a better understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance, and strategies for more sustainable management of the pest.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression patterns of PxGSTs in multiple tissues as determined by qRT-PCR. FRS, fipronil resistant strain; EP, epidermis; FB, fat body; H, head; MG, midgut; MT, Malpighian tubules; Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. Statistically significant differences were labeled with different letters as evaluated with one-way ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05, n = 3).
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Fig8: Expression patterns of PxGSTs in multiple tissues as determined by qRT-PCR. FRS, fipronil resistant strain; EP, epidermis; FB, fat body; H, head; MG, midgut; MT, Malpighian tubules; Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. Statistically significant differences were labeled with different letters as evaluated with one-way ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05, n = 3).

Mentions: Twelve PxGSTs with significantly high expression in resistant strains were further analyzed using qRT-PCR in different tissues of fipronil-resistant strain. The results showed that 6 genes (PxGSTd3, PxGSTd5, PxGSTs2, PxGSTz2, PxGSTo1 and PxGSTo4) were significantly more highly expressed in Malpighian tubules, 4 (PxGSTd4, PxGSTo2, PxGSTe4 and PxGSTt1) both in Malpighian tubules and midguts and 1 (PxGSTs1) in epidermis, except for PxGSTo5 with no significant different expression in the various tissues (Figure 8). These results further validate the association of the PxGSTs with insecticide detoxification because these tissues were documented to play important roles in digestion and metabolism of xenobiotics in insects [51,52].Figure 8


Characterization and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

You Y, Xie M, Ren N, Cheng X, Li J, Ma X, Zou M, Vasseur L, Gurr GM, You M - BMC Genomics (2015)

Expression patterns of PxGSTs in multiple tissues as determined by qRT-PCR. FRS, fipronil resistant strain; EP, epidermis; FB, fat body; H, head; MG, midgut; MT, Malpighian tubules; Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. Statistically significant differences were labeled with different letters as evaluated with one-way ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05, n = 3).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358871&req=5

Fig8: Expression patterns of PxGSTs in multiple tissues as determined by qRT-PCR. FRS, fipronil resistant strain; EP, epidermis; FB, fat body; H, head; MG, midgut; MT, Malpighian tubules; Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. Statistically significant differences were labeled with different letters as evaluated with one-way ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05, n = 3).
Mentions: Twelve PxGSTs with significantly high expression in resistant strains were further analyzed using qRT-PCR in different tissues of fipronil-resistant strain. The results showed that 6 genes (PxGSTd3, PxGSTd5, PxGSTs2, PxGSTz2, PxGSTo1 and PxGSTo4) were significantly more highly expressed in Malpighian tubules, 4 (PxGSTd4, PxGSTo2, PxGSTe4 and PxGSTt1) both in Malpighian tubules and midguts and 1 (PxGSTs1) in epidermis, except for PxGSTo5 with no significant different expression in the various tissues (Figure 8). These results further validate the association of the PxGSTs with insecticide detoxification because these tissues were documented to play important roles in digestion and metabolism of xenobiotics in insects [51,52].Figure 8

Bottom Line: Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses.The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches.The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Ecology and Research Centre for Biodiversity and Eco-Safety, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. fzyouyc@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that play important roles in insects. The completion of several insect genome projects has enabled the identification and characterization of GST genes over recent years. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a species in which the GSTs are of special importance because this pest is highly resistant to many insecticides.

Results: A total of 22 putative cytosolic GSTs were identified from a published P. xylostella genome and grouped into 6 subclasses (with two unclassified). Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches. Intron sites and phases as well as GSH binding sites were strongly conserved within each of the subclasses in the GSTs of P. xylostella. Transcriptome-, RNA-seq- and qRT-PCR-based analyses showed that the GST genes were developmental stage- and strain-specifically expressed. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut or epidermis.

Conclusions: To date, this is the most comprehensive study on genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of the GST family in P. xylostella. The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins. Our findings provide a base for functional research on specific GST genes, a better understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance, and strategies for more sustainable management of the pest.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus