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Characterization and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

You Y, Xie M, Ren N, Cheng X, Li J, Ma X, Zou M, Vasseur L, Gurr GM, You M - BMC Genomics (2015)

Bottom Line: Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses.The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches.The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Ecology and Research Centre for Biodiversity and Eco-Safety, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. fzyouyc@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that play important roles in insects. The completion of several insect genome projects has enabled the identification and characterization of GST genes over recent years. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a species in which the GSTs are of special importance because this pest is highly resistant to many insecticides.

Results: A total of 22 putative cytosolic GSTs were identified from a published P. xylostella genome and grouped into 6 subclasses (with two unclassified). Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches. Intron sites and phases as well as GSH binding sites were strongly conserved within each of the subclasses in the GSTs of P. xylostella. Transcriptome-, RNA-seq- and qRT-PCR-based analyses showed that the GST genes were developmental stage- and strain-specifically expressed. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut or epidermis.

Conclusions: To date, this is the most comprehensive study on genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of the GST family in P. xylostella. The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins. Our findings provide a base for functional research on specific GST genes, a better understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance, and strategies for more sustainable management of the pest.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression patterns of PxGSTs in three strains as determined by qRT-PCR. SS, insecticide susceptible strain; FRS, fipronil resistant strain; CRS, chlorpyrifos resistant strain; Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. Statistically significant differences were labeled with different letters as evaluated with one-way ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05, n = 3).
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Fig7: Expression patterns of PxGSTs in three strains as determined by qRT-PCR. SS, insecticide susceptible strain; FRS, fipronil resistant strain; CRS, chlorpyrifos resistant strain; Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. Statistically significant differences were labeled with different letters as evaluated with one-way ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05, n = 3).

Mentions: The qRT-PCR-based analysis showed that four of the PxGSTs (PxGSTd3, PxGSTd4, PxGSTo2 and PxGSTo5) showed significantly greater expression in both CRS and FRS. PxGSTd5, PxGSTs1, PxGSTs2 and PxGSTz2 in FRS and PxGSTo1 and PxGSTo4 in CRS also had greater gene expressions than in SS. Interestingly, PxGSTe4 and PxGSTt1 exhibited higher expressions in FRS but lower expressions in CRS when compared to the SS (Figure 7). Expression of the other 10 PxGSTs were not significantly different among strains. The qRT-PCR-based analysis could not confirm the transcriptome-based expression profiling patterns of all the PxGSTs, which might result from different sampling times when the resistant DBMs (FRS and CRS) were collected for transcriptome sequencing in December 2009, and collected three years later for qRT-PCR. The diversified patterns of strain-specific expressions suggest that the PxGSTs might involve a functionally complex system in response to detoxifying different classes of insecticides [34,49,50].Figure 7


Characterization and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

You Y, Xie M, Ren N, Cheng X, Li J, Ma X, Zou M, Vasseur L, Gurr GM, You M - BMC Genomics (2015)

Expression patterns of PxGSTs in three strains as determined by qRT-PCR. SS, insecticide susceptible strain; FRS, fipronil resistant strain; CRS, chlorpyrifos resistant strain; Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. Statistically significant differences were labeled with different letters as evaluated with one-way ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05, n = 3).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358871&req=5

Fig7: Expression patterns of PxGSTs in three strains as determined by qRT-PCR. SS, insecticide susceptible strain; FRS, fipronil resistant strain; CRS, chlorpyrifos resistant strain; Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. Statistically significant differences were labeled with different letters as evaluated with one-way ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test, P < 0.05, n = 3).
Mentions: The qRT-PCR-based analysis showed that four of the PxGSTs (PxGSTd3, PxGSTd4, PxGSTo2 and PxGSTo5) showed significantly greater expression in both CRS and FRS. PxGSTd5, PxGSTs1, PxGSTs2 and PxGSTz2 in FRS and PxGSTo1 and PxGSTo4 in CRS also had greater gene expressions than in SS. Interestingly, PxGSTe4 and PxGSTt1 exhibited higher expressions in FRS but lower expressions in CRS when compared to the SS (Figure 7). Expression of the other 10 PxGSTs were not significantly different among strains. The qRT-PCR-based analysis could not confirm the transcriptome-based expression profiling patterns of all the PxGSTs, which might result from different sampling times when the resistant DBMs (FRS and CRS) were collected for transcriptome sequencing in December 2009, and collected three years later for qRT-PCR. The diversified patterns of strain-specific expressions suggest that the PxGSTs might involve a functionally complex system in response to detoxifying different classes of insecticides [34,49,50].Figure 7

Bottom Line: Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses.The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches.The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Ecology and Research Centre for Biodiversity and Eco-Safety, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. fzyouyc@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that play important roles in insects. The completion of several insect genome projects has enabled the identification and characterization of GST genes over recent years. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a species in which the GSTs are of special importance because this pest is highly resistant to many insecticides.

Results: A total of 22 putative cytosolic GSTs were identified from a published P. xylostella genome and grouped into 6 subclasses (with two unclassified). Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches. Intron sites and phases as well as GSH binding sites were strongly conserved within each of the subclasses in the GSTs of P. xylostella. Transcriptome-, RNA-seq- and qRT-PCR-based analyses showed that the GST genes were developmental stage- and strain-specifically expressed. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut or epidermis.

Conclusions: To date, this is the most comprehensive study on genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of the GST family in P. xylostella. The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins. Our findings provide a base for functional research on specific GST genes, a better understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance, and strategies for more sustainable management of the pest.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus