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Characterization and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

You Y, Xie M, Ren N, Cheng X, Li J, Ma X, Zou M, Vasseur L, Gurr GM, You M - BMC Genomics (2015)

Bottom Line: Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses.The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches.The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Ecology and Research Centre for Biodiversity and Eco-Safety, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. fzyouyc@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that play important roles in insects. The completion of several insect genome projects has enabled the identification and characterization of GST genes over recent years. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a species in which the GSTs are of special importance because this pest is highly resistant to many insecticides.

Results: A total of 22 putative cytosolic GSTs were identified from a published P. xylostella genome and grouped into 6 subclasses (with two unclassified). Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches. Intron sites and phases as well as GSH binding sites were strongly conserved within each of the subclasses in the GSTs of P. xylostella. Transcriptome-, RNA-seq- and qRT-PCR-based analyses showed that the GST genes were developmental stage- and strain-specifically expressed. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut or epidermis.

Conclusions: To date, this is the most comprehensive study on genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of the GST family in P. xylostella. The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins. Our findings provide a base for functional research on specific GST genes, a better understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance, and strategies for more sustainable management of the pest.

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Differential expressions of the PxGSTs in different resistant strains based on RPKM value. CRS: chlorpyrifos resistant strain; FRS: fipronil resistant strain. Differential expressions are illustrated by different colors compared to the expression in susceptible strain (SS), with the red representing up-regulated, the green down-regulated and the black no difference with SS. The gray denotes missing values. The data were obtained from our published transcriptome data. The RPKM values are presented in Additional file 8: Table S4. The data have been uploaded to the P. xylostella genomic database (DBM-DB: http://iae.fafu.edu.cn/DBM/family/PxGSTs.php).
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Fig6: Differential expressions of the PxGSTs in different resistant strains based on RPKM value. CRS: chlorpyrifos resistant strain; FRS: fipronil resistant strain. Differential expressions are illustrated by different colors compared to the expression in susceptible strain (SS), with the red representing up-regulated, the green down-regulated and the black no difference with SS. The gray denotes missing values. The data were obtained from our published transcriptome data. The RPKM values are presented in Additional file 8: Table S4. The data have been uploaded to the P. xylostella genomic database (DBM-DB: http://iae.fafu.edu.cn/DBM/family/PxGSTs.php).

Mentions: Based on the DBM transcriptome, all of the PxGSTs were either up- or down-regulated in the insecticide resistant strains when compared to the susceptible strain (SS) (Figure 6, Additional file 8: Table S4). Seven PxGSTs were up-regulated in both of the chlorpyrifos- and fipronil-resistant strains (CRS and FRS) (Figure 6, group I). They are mostly insect specific GSTs (Delta and Epsilon) with the potential function of detoxification. However, seven PxGSTs were down-regulated in CRS and FRS (Figure 6, group II). Most of the rest were up-regulated in FRS, but down- regulated in CRS, possibly reflecting different mechanisms of detoxification between the two strains.Figure 6


Characterization and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

You Y, Xie M, Ren N, Cheng X, Li J, Ma X, Zou M, Vasseur L, Gurr GM, You M - BMC Genomics (2015)

Differential expressions of the PxGSTs in different resistant strains based on RPKM value. CRS: chlorpyrifos resistant strain; FRS: fipronil resistant strain. Differential expressions are illustrated by different colors compared to the expression in susceptible strain (SS), with the red representing up-regulated, the green down-regulated and the black no difference with SS. The gray denotes missing values. The data were obtained from our published transcriptome data. The RPKM values are presented in Additional file 8: Table S4. The data have been uploaded to the P. xylostella genomic database (DBM-DB: http://iae.fafu.edu.cn/DBM/family/PxGSTs.php).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358871&req=5

Fig6: Differential expressions of the PxGSTs in different resistant strains based on RPKM value. CRS: chlorpyrifos resistant strain; FRS: fipronil resistant strain. Differential expressions are illustrated by different colors compared to the expression in susceptible strain (SS), with the red representing up-regulated, the green down-regulated and the black no difference with SS. The gray denotes missing values. The data were obtained from our published transcriptome data. The RPKM values are presented in Additional file 8: Table S4. The data have been uploaded to the P. xylostella genomic database (DBM-DB: http://iae.fafu.edu.cn/DBM/family/PxGSTs.php).
Mentions: Based on the DBM transcriptome, all of the PxGSTs were either up- or down-regulated in the insecticide resistant strains when compared to the susceptible strain (SS) (Figure 6, Additional file 8: Table S4). Seven PxGSTs were up-regulated in both of the chlorpyrifos- and fipronil-resistant strains (CRS and FRS) (Figure 6, group I). They are mostly insect specific GSTs (Delta and Epsilon) with the potential function of detoxification. However, seven PxGSTs were down-regulated in CRS and FRS (Figure 6, group II). Most of the rest were up-regulated in FRS, but down- regulated in CRS, possibly reflecting different mechanisms of detoxification between the two strains.Figure 6

Bottom Line: Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses.The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches.The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Ecology and Research Centre for Biodiversity and Eco-Safety, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. fzyouyc@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that play important roles in insects. The completion of several insect genome projects has enabled the identification and characterization of GST genes over recent years. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a species in which the GSTs are of special importance because this pest is highly resistant to many insecticides.

Results: A total of 22 putative cytosolic GSTs were identified from a published P. xylostella genome and grouped into 6 subclasses (with two unclassified). Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches. Intron sites and phases as well as GSH binding sites were strongly conserved within each of the subclasses in the GSTs of P. xylostella. Transcriptome-, RNA-seq- and qRT-PCR-based analyses showed that the GST genes were developmental stage- and strain-specifically expressed. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut or epidermis.

Conclusions: To date, this is the most comprehensive study on genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of the GST family in P. xylostella. The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins. Our findings provide a base for functional research on specific GST genes, a better understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance, and strategies for more sustainable management of the pest.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus