RNA degradation in antiviral immunity and autoimmunity.
Bottom Line: Post-transcriptional control determines the fate of cellular RNA molecules.Recent findings have revealed a role for NMD in targeting viral RNA molecules, thereby restricting virus infection.Interestingly, NMD is also linked to immune responses at another level: mutations affecting the NMD or RNA exosome machineries cause chronic activation of defence programmes, resulting in autoimmune phenotypes.
Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Medical Research Council Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Nucleic acids are potent activators of the innate immune response in mammals and numerous specialised nucleic acid-sensing PRRs and their downstream signalling cascades have been identified  (Figure 2). The detection of viral and bacterial nucleic acids triggers a powerful innate immune response that is characterised by the production of type I interferons (IFNs). Type I IFNs signal via the type I interferon receptor to activate transcription of hundreds of ISGs, many of which restrict virus infection . This thereby induces an antiviral state both in the infected cell as well as in the surrounding tissue microenvironment. The type I IFN-induced antiviral state prevents virus replication and spread and constitutes an important barrier to infection; this is evident, for example, from the fact almost every mammalian virus counteracts and/or evades the IFN response [52,53]. Moreover, type I IFNs facilitate cell-mediated innate and adaptive immune responses [54,55]. Type I IFNs are therefore crucial to successful immunity against virus infection.
Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Medical Research Council Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK.