How and why to study autophagy in Drosophila: it's more than just a garbage chute.
Bottom Line: This way, autophagy contributes to the homeodynamic turnover of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, glycogen, and even whole organelles.Autophagic activity is increased by adverse conditions such as nutrient limitation, growth factor withdrawal and oxidative stress, and it generally protects cells and organisms to promote their survival.Here we discuss the different microscopy-based, biochemical and genetic methods currently available to study autophagy in various tissues of the popular model Drosophila.
Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Cell and Developmental Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány s. 1/C. 6.520, Budapest H-1117, Hungary.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: Eukaryotic cells can deliver portions of their own cytoplasm (including organelles and protein aggregates) for lysosomal degradation in several ways . Macroautophagy (hereafter simply referred to as autophagy) is the best studied and probably most abundant of these routes. Three main steps can be distinguished during this vesicular transport process (Fig. 1). First, a phagophore cistern (also known as the isolation membrane) forms and engulfs cytoplasmic cargo into a double-membrane vesicle called autophagosome. Second, the autophagosome fuses with a lysosome (or late endosome) to give rise to an autolysosome (or amphisome). Third, contents delivered for degradation are broken down by acidic hydrolases within the autolysosome, and the resulting monomers are recycled for biosynthesis and energy production.
Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Cell and Developmental Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány s. 1/C. 6.520, Budapest H-1117, Hungary.