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Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

Hroncova Z, Havlik J, Killer J, Doskocil I, Tyl J, Kamler M, Titera D, Hakl J, Mrazek J, Bunesova V, Rada V - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence.The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation.We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may be undergoing dynamic succession.

No MeSH data available.


Dynamics of selected bacterial groups in the total gastrointestinal tract during development and aging of a “single” honey bee.Data were obtained by collecting pooled samples of sister honey bees from the eggs of the same oviposition. Young bees were marked by paint shortly after emergence. Legend in the grey field provides a link to the first experiment EXP2 described here and shows at which approximate time points the samples for EXP1 were collected.
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pone.0118707.g003: Dynamics of selected bacterial groups in the total gastrointestinal tract during development and aging of a “single” honey bee.Data were obtained by collecting pooled samples of sister honey bees from the eggs of the same oviposition. Young bees were marked by paint shortly after emergence. Legend in the grey field provides a link to the first experiment EXP2 described here and shows at which approximate time points the samples for EXP1 were collected.

Mentions: Another experiment (EXP2) was conducted to gain insight into the variation and dynamics of bacterial population changes during honey bee ontogenesis in one selected hive. The results showed that 4th and 5th larval instars were dominant in Firmicutes (Fig. 3); although the counts (gene copies per gram of digestive tract content) were generally low (2.9 × 107 in L6).


Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

Hroncova Z, Havlik J, Killer J, Doskocil I, Tyl J, Kamler M, Titera D, Hakl J, Mrazek J, Bunesova V, Rada V - PLoS ONE (2015)

Dynamics of selected bacterial groups in the total gastrointestinal tract during development and aging of a “single” honey bee.Data were obtained by collecting pooled samples of sister honey bees from the eggs of the same oviposition. Young bees were marked by paint shortly after emergence. Legend in the grey field provides a link to the first experiment EXP2 described here and shows at which approximate time points the samples for EXP1 were collected.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358834&req=5

pone.0118707.g003: Dynamics of selected bacterial groups in the total gastrointestinal tract during development and aging of a “single” honey bee.Data were obtained by collecting pooled samples of sister honey bees from the eggs of the same oviposition. Young bees were marked by paint shortly after emergence. Legend in the grey field provides a link to the first experiment EXP2 described here and shows at which approximate time points the samples for EXP1 were collected.
Mentions: Another experiment (EXP2) was conducted to gain insight into the variation and dynamics of bacterial population changes during honey bee ontogenesis in one selected hive. The results showed that 4th and 5th larval instars were dominant in Firmicutes (Fig. 3); although the counts (gene copies per gram of digestive tract content) were generally low (2.9 × 107 in L6).

Bottom Line: However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence.The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation.We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may be undergoing dynamic succession.

No MeSH data available.