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Meta-analysis of studies using suppression subtractive hybridization and microarrays to investigate the effects of environmental stress on gene transcription in oysters.

Anderson K, Taylor DA, Thompson EL, Melwani AR, Nair SV, Raftos DA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: To address this shortfall, we conducted a meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the effects of different environmental stressors on gene expression in oysters.We found that the expression of over 400 genes in a range of oyster species changed significantly after exposure to environmental stress.In light of these findings, we put forward a consensus model of sub-cellular stress responses in oysters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Chowder Bay, NSW, Australia; Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Many microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) studies have analyzed the effects of environmental stress on gene transcription in marine species. However, there have been no unifying analyses of these data to identify common stress response pathways. To address this shortfall, we conducted a meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the effects of different environmental stressors on gene expression in oysters. The stressors tested included chemical contamination, hypoxia and infection, as well as extremes of temperature, pH and turbidity. We found that the expression of over 400 genes in a range of oyster species changed significantly after exposure to environmental stress. A repeating pattern was evident in these transcriptional responses, regardless of the type of stress applied. Many of the genes that responded to environmental stress encoded proteins involved in translation and protein processing (including molecular chaperones), the mitochondrial electron transport chain, anti-oxidant activity and the cytoskeleton. In light of these findings, we put forward a consensus model of sub-cellular stress responses in oysters.

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Biological functions of genes that were differentially expressed in response to four general categories of stress: hypoxia (n = 101 genes); contamination (hydrocarbons, metals, and pesticides, n = 115); temperature extremes (high and low, n = 280); and, infection (Bonamia ostrea, Martelia sydneyi, Perkinsus marinus, generic bacterial sp., Vibrio splendidus, and Ostreid herpes virus 1, n = 705).
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pone.0118839.g006: Biological functions of genes that were differentially expressed in response to four general categories of stress: hypoxia (n = 101 genes); contamination (hydrocarbons, metals, and pesticides, n = 115); temperature extremes (high and low, n = 280); and, infection (Bonamia ostrea, Martelia sydneyi, Perkinsus marinus, generic bacterial sp., Vibrio splendidus, and Ostreid herpes virus 1, n = 705).

Mentions: The percentage of differentially expressed genes comprising the different functional categories was broadly similar between all four general classes of stressors (Fig. 6). Genes in the transcription/translation and metabolism categories were the most frequently affected by all classes of stress. However, there was significant variability (χ2 = 73.23, df = 21, p < 0.05) in the responses to different stressors. Temperature extremes affected the expression of significantly more genes involved in transcription and/or translation than the other types of stress. Similarly, hypoxia and contamination had a proportionally greater effect on genes involved in metabolism when compared to temperature extremes and infection. Despite these minor variations, the transcriptional profiles of oysters responding to the different stressors were quite similar. This suggests that there is a core set of stress response genes within oyster cells, primarily involved in metabolism, and that the transcription/translation of these genes is responsive to a broad range of environmental stressors. By corollary, the data imply that enhanced cellular energy demand is a universal response to environmental stress, and that adaptive responses to stress extend well beyond the “minimal stress proteome of cellular organisms” proposed by Kültz [22].


Meta-analysis of studies using suppression subtractive hybridization and microarrays to investigate the effects of environmental stress on gene transcription in oysters.

Anderson K, Taylor DA, Thompson EL, Melwani AR, Nair SV, Raftos DA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Biological functions of genes that were differentially expressed in response to four general categories of stress: hypoxia (n = 101 genes); contamination (hydrocarbons, metals, and pesticides, n = 115); temperature extremes (high and low, n = 280); and, infection (Bonamia ostrea, Martelia sydneyi, Perkinsus marinus, generic bacterial sp., Vibrio splendidus, and Ostreid herpes virus 1, n = 705).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358831&req=5

pone.0118839.g006: Biological functions of genes that were differentially expressed in response to four general categories of stress: hypoxia (n = 101 genes); contamination (hydrocarbons, metals, and pesticides, n = 115); temperature extremes (high and low, n = 280); and, infection (Bonamia ostrea, Martelia sydneyi, Perkinsus marinus, generic bacterial sp., Vibrio splendidus, and Ostreid herpes virus 1, n = 705).
Mentions: The percentage of differentially expressed genes comprising the different functional categories was broadly similar between all four general classes of stressors (Fig. 6). Genes in the transcription/translation and metabolism categories were the most frequently affected by all classes of stress. However, there was significant variability (χ2 = 73.23, df = 21, p < 0.05) in the responses to different stressors. Temperature extremes affected the expression of significantly more genes involved in transcription and/or translation than the other types of stress. Similarly, hypoxia and contamination had a proportionally greater effect on genes involved in metabolism when compared to temperature extremes and infection. Despite these minor variations, the transcriptional profiles of oysters responding to the different stressors were quite similar. This suggests that there is a core set of stress response genes within oyster cells, primarily involved in metabolism, and that the transcription/translation of these genes is responsive to a broad range of environmental stressors. By corollary, the data imply that enhanced cellular energy demand is a universal response to environmental stress, and that adaptive responses to stress extend well beyond the “minimal stress proteome of cellular organisms” proposed by Kültz [22].

Bottom Line: To address this shortfall, we conducted a meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the effects of different environmental stressors on gene expression in oysters.We found that the expression of over 400 genes in a range of oyster species changed significantly after exposure to environmental stress.In light of these findings, we put forward a consensus model of sub-cellular stress responses in oysters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Chowder Bay, NSW, Australia; Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Many microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) studies have analyzed the effects of environmental stress on gene transcription in marine species. However, there have been no unifying analyses of these data to identify common stress response pathways. To address this shortfall, we conducted a meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the effects of different environmental stressors on gene expression in oysters. The stressors tested included chemical contamination, hypoxia and infection, as well as extremes of temperature, pH and turbidity. We found that the expression of over 400 genes in a range of oyster species changed significantly after exposure to environmental stress. A repeating pattern was evident in these transcriptional responses, regardless of the type of stress applied. Many of the genes that responded to environmental stress encoded proteins involved in translation and protein processing (including molecular chaperones), the mitochondrial electron transport chain, anti-oxidant activity and the cytoskeleton. In light of these findings, we put forward a consensus model of sub-cellular stress responses in oysters.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus