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In vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects of flavokawain B in 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice.

Abu N, Mohamed NE, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Akhtar MN, Zulfadli AJ, Kee BB, Abdullah MP, Omar AR, Alitheen NB - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro.However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet.All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bright Sparks Unit, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Flavokawain B (FKB) is a naturally occurring chalcone that can be isolated through the root extracts of the kava-kava plant (Piper methysticum). It can also be synthesized chemically to increase the yield. This compound is a promising candidate as a biological agent, as it is reported to be involved in a wide range of biological activities. Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet. Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in the world today. Any potential treatment should not only impede the growth of the tumor, but also modulate the immune system efficiently and inhibit the formation of secondary tumors. As presented in our study, FKB induced apoptosis in 4T1 tumors in vivo, as evidenced by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor. FKB also regulated the immune system by increasing both helper and cytolytic T-cell and natural killer cell populations. In addition, FKB also enhanced the levels of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma but suppressed interleukin 1B. Apart from that, FKB was also found to inhibit metastasis, as evaluated by clonogenic assay, bone marrow smearing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and proteome profiler analysis. All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative images of the colonies formed in each of the organs (A). Bar chart of the total 4T1 colonies formed from the meshed lung, liver, and spleen harvested from the control and flavokawain B (50 mg/kg)-treated mice after 10 days of incubation (B).Notes: (A) Lung, dilution factor: 104; liver, dilution factor: 104; spleen, dilution factor: 105. (B) Each value represents mean ± standard error of the mean; *P<0.05; n=3.
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f8-dddt-9-1401: Representative images of the colonies formed in each of the organs (A). Bar chart of the total 4T1 colonies formed from the meshed lung, liver, and spleen harvested from the control and flavokawain B (50 mg/kg)-treated mice after 10 days of incubation (B).Notes: (A) Lung, dilution factor: 104; liver, dilution factor: 104; spleen, dilution factor: 105. (B) Each value represents mean ± standard error of the mean; *P<0.05; n=3.

Mentions: To test for the antimetastatic potential of FKB in vivo, the clonogenic assay was performed. As depicted in Figure 8, the number of colonies formed in the lung, liver, and spleen was reduced significantly in the FKB treatment group. In addition, on the basis of the bone marrow smearing assay, as shown in Figure 9, the presence of abnormal cells was only seen in the untreated group, not in the FKB treatment group.


In vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects of flavokawain B in 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice.

Abu N, Mohamed NE, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Akhtar MN, Zulfadli AJ, Kee BB, Abdullah MP, Omar AR, Alitheen NB - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Representative images of the colonies formed in each of the organs (A). Bar chart of the total 4T1 colonies formed from the meshed lung, liver, and spleen harvested from the control and flavokawain B (50 mg/kg)-treated mice after 10 days of incubation (B).Notes: (A) Lung, dilution factor: 104; liver, dilution factor: 104; spleen, dilution factor: 105. (B) Each value represents mean ± standard error of the mean; *P<0.05; n=3.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358690&req=5

f8-dddt-9-1401: Representative images of the colonies formed in each of the organs (A). Bar chart of the total 4T1 colonies formed from the meshed lung, liver, and spleen harvested from the control and flavokawain B (50 mg/kg)-treated mice after 10 days of incubation (B).Notes: (A) Lung, dilution factor: 104; liver, dilution factor: 104; spleen, dilution factor: 105. (B) Each value represents mean ± standard error of the mean; *P<0.05; n=3.
Mentions: To test for the antimetastatic potential of FKB in vivo, the clonogenic assay was performed. As depicted in Figure 8, the number of colonies formed in the lung, liver, and spleen was reduced significantly in the FKB treatment group. In addition, on the basis of the bone marrow smearing assay, as shown in Figure 9, the presence of abnormal cells was only seen in the untreated group, not in the FKB treatment group.

Bottom Line: Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro.However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet.All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bright Sparks Unit, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Flavokawain B (FKB) is a naturally occurring chalcone that can be isolated through the root extracts of the kava-kava plant (Piper methysticum). It can also be synthesized chemically to increase the yield. This compound is a promising candidate as a biological agent, as it is reported to be involved in a wide range of biological activities. Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet. Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in the world today. Any potential treatment should not only impede the growth of the tumor, but also modulate the immune system efficiently and inhibit the formation of secondary tumors. As presented in our study, FKB induced apoptosis in 4T1 tumors in vivo, as evidenced by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor. FKB also regulated the immune system by increasing both helper and cytolytic T-cell and natural killer cell populations. In addition, FKB also enhanced the levels of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma but suppressed interleukin 1B. Apart from that, FKB was also found to inhibit metastasis, as evaluated by clonogenic assay, bone marrow smearing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and proteome profiler analysis. All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus