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In vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects of flavokawain B in 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice.

Abu N, Mohamed NE, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Akhtar MN, Zulfadli AJ, Kee BB, Abdullah MP, Omar AR, Alitheen NB - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro.However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet.All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bright Sparks Unit, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Flavokawain B (FKB) is a naturally occurring chalcone that can be isolated through the root extracts of the kava-kava plant (Piper methysticum). It can also be synthesized chemically to increase the yield. This compound is a promising candidate as a biological agent, as it is reported to be involved in a wide range of biological activities. Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet. Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in the world today. Any potential treatment should not only impede the growth of the tumor, but also modulate the immune system efficiently and inhibit the formation of secondary tumors. As presented in our study, FKB induced apoptosis in 4T1 tumors in vivo, as evidenced by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor. FKB also regulated the immune system by increasing both helper and cytolytic T-cell and natural killer cell populations. In addition, FKB also enhanced the levels of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma but suppressed interleukin 1B. Apart from that, FKB was also found to inhibit metastasis, as evaluated by clonogenic assay, bone marrow smearing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and proteome profiler analysis. All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cell cycle analysis of 4T1 cells after treatment with three different concentrations of flavokawain B for 72 hours.Notes: n=3 biological replicates of 4T1 cells.
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f2-dddt-9-1401: Cell cycle analysis of 4T1 cells after treatment with three different concentrations of flavokawain B for 72 hours.Notes: n=3 biological replicates of 4T1 cells.

Mentions: To screen whether FKB is cytotoxic toward 4T1 cells or not, the MTT assay was conducted before any other assays. As depicted in Figure 1, FKB managed to inhibit the growth of 4T1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The half-maximal dose of FKB was 13.5 μg/mL after 72 hours of treatment. Furthermore, to analyze the effect of FKB on the cell cycle regulation of 4T1 cells, the flow cytometric analysis was performed as in Figure 2. As depicted in Table 2, the percentage of the cells in the SubG0/G1 phase increased as the dose of FKB escalated.


In vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects of flavokawain B in 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice.

Abu N, Mohamed NE, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Akhtar MN, Zulfadli AJ, Kee BB, Abdullah MP, Omar AR, Alitheen NB - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Cell cycle analysis of 4T1 cells after treatment with three different concentrations of flavokawain B for 72 hours.Notes: n=3 biological replicates of 4T1 cells.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358690&req=5

f2-dddt-9-1401: Cell cycle analysis of 4T1 cells after treatment with three different concentrations of flavokawain B for 72 hours.Notes: n=3 biological replicates of 4T1 cells.
Mentions: To screen whether FKB is cytotoxic toward 4T1 cells or not, the MTT assay was conducted before any other assays. As depicted in Figure 1, FKB managed to inhibit the growth of 4T1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The half-maximal dose of FKB was 13.5 μg/mL after 72 hours of treatment. Furthermore, to analyze the effect of FKB on the cell cycle regulation of 4T1 cells, the flow cytometric analysis was performed as in Figure 2. As depicted in Table 2, the percentage of the cells in the SubG0/G1 phase increased as the dose of FKB escalated.

Bottom Line: Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro.However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet.All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bright Sparks Unit, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Flavokawain B (FKB) is a naturally occurring chalcone that can be isolated through the root extracts of the kava-kava plant (Piper methysticum). It can also be synthesized chemically to increase the yield. This compound is a promising candidate as a biological agent, as it is reported to be involved in a wide range of biological activities. Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet. Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in the world today. Any potential treatment should not only impede the growth of the tumor, but also modulate the immune system efficiently and inhibit the formation of secondary tumors. As presented in our study, FKB induced apoptosis in 4T1 tumors in vivo, as evidenced by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor. FKB also regulated the immune system by increasing both helper and cytolytic T-cell and natural killer cell populations. In addition, FKB also enhanced the levels of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma but suppressed interleukin 1B. Apart from that, FKB was also found to inhibit metastasis, as evaluated by clonogenic assay, bone marrow smearing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and proteome profiler analysis. All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus