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Evolution of resistance and tolerance to herbivores: testing the trade-off hypothesis.

Kariñho-Betancourt E, Núñez-Farfán J - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: However, we did not detect a negative significant correlation between tolerance and total resistance, or between tolerance and leaf trichome density.Conclusions/Significance.Also, because leaf trichome density reduces damage by herbivores and possess genetic variance in the studied population, its evolution is not constrained.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Genética Ecológica y Evolución, Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria , México, DF , Mexico.

ABSTRACT
Background. To cope with their natural enemies, plants rely on resistance and tolerance as defensive strategies. Evolution of these strategies among natural population can be constrained by the absence of genetic variation or because of the antagonistic genetic correlation (trade-off) between them. Also, since plant defenses are integrated by several traits, it has been suggested that trade-offs might occur between specific defense traits. Methodology/Principal Findings. We experimentally assessed (1) the presence of genetic variance in tolerance, total resistance, and leaf trichome density as specific defense trait, (2) the extent of natural selection acting on plant defenses, and (3) the relationship between total resistance and leaf trichome density with tolerance to herbivory in the annual herb Datura stramonium. Full-sib families of D. stramonium were either exposed to natural herbivores (control) or protected from them by a systemic insecticide. We detected genetic variance for leaf trichome density, and directional selection acting on this character. However, we did not detect a negative significant correlation between tolerance and total resistance, or between tolerance and leaf trichome density. We argue that low levels of leaf damage by herbivores precluded the detection of a negative genetic correlation between plant defense strategies. Conclusions/Significance. This study provides empirical evidence of the independent evolution of plant defense strategies, and a defensive role of leaf trichomes. The pattern of selection should favor individuals with high trichomes density. Also, because leaf trichome density reduces damage by herbivores and possess genetic variance in the studied population, its evolution is not constrained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Average values (± SE) of (A) leaf trichome density and (B) total resistance in families of Datura stramonium.
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fig-2: Average values (± SE) of (A) leaf trichome density and (B) total resistance in families of Datura stramonium.

Mentions: ANOVA detected a significant family effect of the number of flowers produced per plant and the two resistance traits estimated: total resistance (F27,125 = 1.57, P = 0.04) and leaf trichome density (F27,125 = 3.62, P < 0.001) (Table 2; Fig. 2). Heritability of leaf trichome number was high (h2 = 0.641), compared to total resistance (h2 = 0.259). In contrast, we failed to detect genetic variation of tolerance to damage, since the family × relative damage by herbivores was not significant (F27,125 = 0.08, n.s.).


Evolution of resistance and tolerance to herbivores: testing the trade-off hypothesis.

Kariñho-Betancourt E, Núñez-Farfán J - PeerJ (2015)

Average values (± SE) of (A) leaf trichome density and (B) total resistance in families of Datura stramonium.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4358663&req=5

fig-2: Average values (± SE) of (A) leaf trichome density and (B) total resistance in families of Datura stramonium.
Mentions: ANOVA detected a significant family effect of the number of flowers produced per plant and the two resistance traits estimated: total resistance (F27,125 = 1.57, P = 0.04) and leaf trichome density (F27,125 = 3.62, P < 0.001) (Table 2; Fig. 2). Heritability of leaf trichome number was high (h2 = 0.641), compared to total resistance (h2 = 0.259). In contrast, we failed to detect genetic variation of tolerance to damage, since the family × relative damage by herbivores was not significant (F27,125 = 0.08, n.s.).

Bottom Line: However, we did not detect a negative significant correlation between tolerance and total resistance, or between tolerance and leaf trichome density.Conclusions/Significance.Also, because leaf trichome density reduces damage by herbivores and possess genetic variance in the studied population, its evolution is not constrained.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Genética Ecológica y Evolución, Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria , México, DF , Mexico.

ABSTRACT
Background. To cope with their natural enemies, plants rely on resistance and tolerance as defensive strategies. Evolution of these strategies among natural population can be constrained by the absence of genetic variation or because of the antagonistic genetic correlation (trade-off) between them. Also, since plant defenses are integrated by several traits, it has been suggested that trade-offs might occur between specific defense traits. Methodology/Principal Findings. We experimentally assessed (1) the presence of genetic variance in tolerance, total resistance, and leaf trichome density as specific defense trait, (2) the extent of natural selection acting on plant defenses, and (3) the relationship between total resistance and leaf trichome density with tolerance to herbivory in the annual herb Datura stramonium. Full-sib families of D. stramonium were either exposed to natural herbivores (control) or protected from them by a systemic insecticide. We detected genetic variance for leaf trichome density, and directional selection acting on this character. However, we did not detect a negative significant correlation between tolerance and total resistance, or between tolerance and leaf trichome density. We argue that low levels of leaf damage by herbivores precluded the detection of a negative genetic correlation between plant defense strategies. Conclusions/Significance. This study provides empirical evidence of the independent evolution of plant defense strategies, and a defensive role of leaf trichomes. The pattern of selection should favor individuals with high trichomes density. Also, because leaf trichome density reduces damage by herbivores and possess genetic variance in the studied population, its evolution is not constrained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus