Limits...
Evidence for intercontinental parasite exchange through molecular detection and characterization of haematozoa in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled throughout the North Pacific Basin.

Ramey AM, Schmutz JA, Reed JA, Fujita G, Scotton BD, Casler B, Fleskes JP, Konishi K, Uchida K, Yabsley MJ - Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl (2014)

Bottom Line: Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan.The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites.Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA ; Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, 589 D. W. Brooks Drive, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

ABSTRACT
Empirical evidence supports wild birds as playing a role in the interhemispheric exchange of bacteria and viruses; however, data supporting the redistribution of parasites among continents are limited. In this study, the hypothesis that migratory birds contribute to the redistribution of parasites between continents was tested by sampling northern pintails (Anas acuta) at locations throughout the North Pacific Basin in North America and East Asia for haemosporidian infections and assessing the genetic evidence for parasite exchange. Of 878 samples collected from birds in Alaska (USA), California (USA), and Hokkaido (Japan) during August 2011-May 2012 and screened for parasitic infections using molecular techniques, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites were detected in 555 (63%), 44 (5%), and 52 (6%) samples, respectively. Using an occupancy modeling approach, the probability of detecting parasites via replicate genetic tests was estimated to be high (ρ > 0.95). Multi-model inference supported variation of Leucocytozoon parasite prevalence by northern pintail age class and geographic location of sampling in contrast to Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites for which there was only support for variation in parasite prevalence by sampling location. Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan. The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites. Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Approximate locations in North America and East Asia at which northern pintail tissue samples were collected during 2011–2012 to test for haemosporidian infection. Regions (i.e. Alaska, California, and Japan) and sub-regions (Koyukuk-Nowitna NWR, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta NWR, Izembek NWR, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley) for sampling locations are indicated (NWR = National Wildlife Refuge). The number of tissue samples per location is indicated in parentheses. Sample tissue was whole blood unless indicated by an asterisk (signifying wing muscle tissue).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356736&req=5

f0015: Approximate locations in North America and East Asia at which northern pintail tissue samples were collected during 2011–2012 to test for haemosporidian infection. Regions (i.e. Alaska, California, and Japan) and sub-regions (Koyukuk-Nowitna NWR, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta NWR, Izembek NWR, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley) for sampling locations are indicated (NWR = National Wildlife Refuge). The number of tissue samples per location is indicated in parentheses. Sample tissue was whole blood unless indicated by an asterisk (signifying wing muscle tissue).

Mentions: Tissue samples were collected from live-captured and hunter-harvested northern pintails in Alaska, USA and Hokkaido, Japan in August 2011–May 2012. Blood samples were also collected from hunter harvested and rocket netted northern pintails in California, USA during September 2011–January 2012 as part of a previous investigation (Ramey et al., 2013b) and previously published data for these samples (n = 157) were incorporated into analyses for this study. In Alaska, blood samples were collected from live birds on Koyukuk-Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge (NWR; n = 200) and on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta NWR (n = 201) in August of 2011 (Fig. 1). Wing muscle tissue was also obtained from hunter-harvested northern pintails in Alaska during September–October 2011 at Izembek NWR (n = 206; Fig. 1) as this tissue type has been previously shown to be useful for the detection of avian haemosporidian parasites (Ramey et al., 2013b). In Japan, blood samples (n = 114) were collected from live-captured northern pintails at Kutcharo Lake Waterfowl Observatory, Hokkaido during April–May 2012 (Fig. 1). Live captures were approved by the U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Science Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC#: 2011–5, 2012–3) and conducted in accordance with authorizations granted by the United States Department of Interior (Federal Bird Banding Permits #09811, #20022, and #22176, Federal Fish and Wildlife Permits #MB122497 and #MB789758) and the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (#21-24-0001–#21-24-0005). Gender and age (adult or juvenile) was determined for most northern pintails in the field by plumage (Carney, 1992); however, in Japan northern pintails were captured in spring after molting into nuptial plumage and therefore juveniles could no longer be identified. Therefore, all birds from Japan were considered to be adults for our analyses. Blood samples were collected from live birds via jugular or brachial venipuncture and preserved in Longmire buffer solution.


Evidence for intercontinental parasite exchange through molecular detection and characterization of haematozoa in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled throughout the North Pacific Basin.

Ramey AM, Schmutz JA, Reed JA, Fujita G, Scotton BD, Casler B, Fleskes JP, Konishi K, Uchida K, Yabsley MJ - Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl (2014)

Approximate locations in North America and East Asia at which northern pintail tissue samples were collected during 2011–2012 to test for haemosporidian infection. Regions (i.e. Alaska, California, and Japan) and sub-regions (Koyukuk-Nowitna NWR, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta NWR, Izembek NWR, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley) for sampling locations are indicated (NWR = National Wildlife Refuge). The number of tissue samples per location is indicated in parentheses. Sample tissue was whole blood unless indicated by an asterisk (signifying wing muscle tissue).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356736&req=5

f0015: Approximate locations in North America and East Asia at which northern pintail tissue samples were collected during 2011–2012 to test for haemosporidian infection. Regions (i.e. Alaska, California, and Japan) and sub-regions (Koyukuk-Nowitna NWR, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta NWR, Izembek NWR, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley) for sampling locations are indicated (NWR = National Wildlife Refuge). The number of tissue samples per location is indicated in parentheses. Sample tissue was whole blood unless indicated by an asterisk (signifying wing muscle tissue).
Mentions: Tissue samples were collected from live-captured and hunter-harvested northern pintails in Alaska, USA and Hokkaido, Japan in August 2011–May 2012. Blood samples were also collected from hunter harvested and rocket netted northern pintails in California, USA during September 2011–January 2012 as part of a previous investigation (Ramey et al., 2013b) and previously published data for these samples (n = 157) were incorporated into analyses for this study. In Alaska, blood samples were collected from live birds on Koyukuk-Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge (NWR; n = 200) and on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta NWR (n = 201) in August of 2011 (Fig. 1). Wing muscle tissue was also obtained from hunter-harvested northern pintails in Alaska during September–October 2011 at Izembek NWR (n = 206; Fig. 1) as this tissue type has been previously shown to be useful for the detection of avian haemosporidian parasites (Ramey et al., 2013b). In Japan, blood samples (n = 114) were collected from live-captured northern pintails at Kutcharo Lake Waterfowl Observatory, Hokkaido during April–May 2012 (Fig. 1). Live captures were approved by the U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Science Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC#: 2011–5, 2012–3) and conducted in accordance with authorizations granted by the United States Department of Interior (Federal Bird Banding Permits #09811, #20022, and #22176, Federal Fish and Wildlife Permits #MB122497 and #MB789758) and the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (#21-24-0001–#21-24-0005). Gender and age (adult or juvenile) was determined for most northern pintails in the field by plumage (Carney, 1992); however, in Japan northern pintails were captured in spring after molting into nuptial plumage and therefore juveniles could no longer be identified. Therefore, all birds from Japan were considered to be adults for our analyses. Blood samples were collected from live birds via jugular or brachial venipuncture and preserved in Longmire buffer solution.

Bottom Line: Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan.The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites.Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA ; Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, 589 D. W. Brooks Drive, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

ABSTRACT
Empirical evidence supports wild birds as playing a role in the interhemispheric exchange of bacteria and viruses; however, data supporting the redistribution of parasites among continents are limited. In this study, the hypothesis that migratory birds contribute to the redistribution of parasites between continents was tested by sampling northern pintails (Anas acuta) at locations throughout the North Pacific Basin in North America and East Asia for haemosporidian infections and assessing the genetic evidence for parasite exchange. Of 878 samples collected from birds in Alaska (USA), California (USA), and Hokkaido (Japan) during August 2011-May 2012 and screened for parasitic infections using molecular techniques, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites were detected in 555 (63%), 44 (5%), and 52 (6%) samples, respectively. Using an occupancy modeling approach, the probability of detecting parasites via replicate genetic tests was estimated to be high (ρ > 0.95). Multi-model inference supported variation of Leucocytozoon parasite prevalence by northern pintail age class and geographic location of sampling in contrast to Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites for which there was only support for variation in parasite prevalence by sampling location. Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan. The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites. Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus