Limits...
Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

Sircova A, Karimi F, Osin EN, Lee S, Holme P, Strömbom D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation.It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance.This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues and to predict their possible outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Independent researcher, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues and to predict their possible outcomes.

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The learning curve for non-cooperative personalities in Sweden.We fix h = 0.50 and simulate the model for various d to see how the outcome of cooperation will improve for non-cooperative personalities.
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pone.0117612.g004: The learning curve for non-cooperative personalities in Sweden.We fix h = 0.50 and simulate the model for various d to see how the outcome of cooperation will improve for non-cooperative personalities.

Mentions: Further, we explored the effect of habit, or the number of days for which the non-cooperative personality types (types 1, 4, 5 and 6) would adopt the cooperative strategy (in the case of a learning intervention, how likely and for how long they would sustain the effect). Fig. 4 shows that in Sweden (other countries presented in S2 Text, S1–S4 Figs.) type 6 (traumatized) remained stable and fluctuated little, depending on the chances of interacting with cooperators. Type 4 (steadfast) showed the strongest improvement, but needed to keep the cooperative strategy for at least three days to reach the level of type 6. The most non-cooperative type 1 (opportunistic) made the slowest progress, taking at least ten days before there was a noticeable effect on the overall outcome. These analyses reflect the individual differences between the types in their learning strategies and dynamics of adoption of cooperative behavior pattern.


Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

Sircova A, Karimi F, Osin EN, Lee S, Holme P, Strömbom D - PLoS ONE (2015)

The learning curve for non-cooperative personalities in Sweden.We fix h = 0.50 and simulate the model for various d to see how the outcome of cooperation will improve for non-cooperative personalities.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356575&req=5

pone.0117612.g004: The learning curve for non-cooperative personalities in Sweden.We fix h = 0.50 and simulate the model for various d to see how the outcome of cooperation will improve for non-cooperative personalities.
Mentions: Further, we explored the effect of habit, or the number of days for which the non-cooperative personality types (types 1, 4, 5 and 6) would adopt the cooperative strategy (in the case of a learning intervention, how likely and for how long they would sustain the effect). Fig. 4 shows that in Sweden (other countries presented in S2 Text, S1–S4 Figs.) type 6 (traumatized) remained stable and fluctuated little, depending on the chances of interacting with cooperators. Type 4 (steadfast) showed the strongest improvement, but needed to keep the cooperative strategy for at least three days to reach the level of type 6. The most non-cooperative type 1 (opportunistic) made the slowest progress, taking at least ten days before there was a noticeable effect on the overall outcome. These analyses reflect the individual differences between the types in their learning strategies and dynamics of adoption of cooperative behavior pattern.

Bottom Line: In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation.It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance.This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues and to predict their possible outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Independent researcher, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues and to predict their possible outcomes.

Show MeSH