Limits...
Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

Sircova A, Karimi F, Osin EN, Lee S, Holme P, Strömbom D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation.It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance.This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues and to predict their possible outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Independent researcher, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues and to predict their possible outcomes.

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The effects of three different levels of policing on the percentage of cooperators.Horizontal axis represents different values of d.
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pone.0117612.g003: The effects of three different levels of policing on the percentage of cooperators.Horizontal axis represents different values of d.

Mentions: Next, we looked into the impact of policing on behavior of non-cooperative types. We were interested in the degree to which environmental factors (policing) could affect the overall evolution of cooperation in a given situation. The results (see Fig. 3) showed that setting the probability of a non-cooperative type to become a cooperator when policed (parameter h) to 0.10 only marginally improved the situation in terms of the total number of cooperators. When h was set at 0.50, its impact on the cooperation outcome increased more strongly and noticeably, compared to an increase from 0 to 0.10 and to a further increase from 0.50 to 0.90. This suggested that when the agents were at least 50% inclined to become cooperators as a result of interaction, policing had a pronounced effect on the overall situation. We set the probability of becoming a cooperator when policed at 50% (h = 0.50) for the rest of the simulations.


Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

Sircova A, Karimi F, Osin EN, Lee S, Holme P, Strömbom D - PLoS ONE (2015)

The effects of three different levels of policing on the percentage of cooperators.Horizontal axis represents different values of d.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356575&req=5

pone.0117612.g003: The effects of three different levels of policing on the percentage of cooperators.Horizontal axis represents different values of d.
Mentions: Next, we looked into the impact of policing on behavior of non-cooperative types. We were interested in the degree to which environmental factors (policing) could affect the overall evolution of cooperation in a given situation. The results (see Fig. 3) showed that setting the probability of a non-cooperative type to become a cooperator when policed (parameter h) to 0.10 only marginally improved the situation in terms of the total number of cooperators. When h was set at 0.50, its impact on the cooperation outcome increased more strongly and noticeably, compared to an increase from 0 to 0.10 and to a further increase from 0.50 to 0.90. This suggested that when the agents were at least 50% inclined to become cooperators as a result of interaction, policing had a pronounced effect on the overall situation. We set the probability of becoming a cooperator when policed at 50% (h = 0.50) for the rest of the simulations.

Bottom Line: In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation.It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance.This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues and to predict their possible outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Independent researcher, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues and to predict their possible outcomes.

Show MeSH