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Insecticide-degrading Burkholderia symbionts of the stinkbug naturally occupy various environments of sugarcane fields in a Southeast island of Japan.

Tago K, Okubo T, Itoh H, Kikuchi Y, Hori T, Sato Y, Nagayama A, Hayashi K, Ikeda S, Hayatsu M - Microbes Environ. (2014)

Bottom Line: Their density was lower in the plant sections than in the rhizosphere.Our results confirmed that plants and the rhizosphere constituted environmental reservoirs for stinkbug symbiotic degraders.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the composition and abundance of the symbiotic fenitrothion degraders of Burkholderia species in farmers' fields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Biofunction Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences.

ABSTRACT
The stinkbug Cavelerius saccharivorus, which harbors Burkholderia species capable of degrading the organophosphorus insecticide, fenitrothion, has been identified on a Japanese island in farmers' sugarcane fields that have been exposed to fenitrothion. A clearer understanding of the ecology of the symbiotic fenitrothion degraders of Burkholderia species in a free-living environment is vital for advancing our knowledge on the establishment of degrader-stinkbug symbiosis. In the present study, we analyzed the composition and abundance of degraders in sugarcane fields on the island. Degraders were recovered from field samples without an enrichment culture procedure. Degrader densities in the furrow soil in fields varied due to differences in insecticide treatment histories. Over 99% of the 659 isolated degraders belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The strains related to the stinkbug symbiotic group predominated among the degraders, indicating a selection for this group in response to fenitrothion. Degraders were also isolated from sugarcane stems, leaves, and rhizosphere in fields that were continuously exposed to fenitrothion. Their density was lower in the plant sections than in the rhizosphere. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that most of the degraders from the plants and rhizosphere clustered with the stinkbug symbiotic group, and some were identical to the midgut symbionts of C. saccharivorus collected from the same field. Our results confirmed that plants and the rhizosphere constituted environmental reservoirs for stinkbug symbiotic degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the composition and abundance of the symbiotic fenitrothion degraders of Burkholderia species in farmers' fields.

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PCoA plots derived from pairwise distances between the communities of degraders in sugarcane stem (open squares), leaf (grey triangles), and rhizosphere (black diamonds) samples.
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f7-30_29: PCoA plots derived from pairwise distances between the communities of degraders in sugarcane stem (open squares), leaf (grey triangles), and rhizosphere (black diamonds) samples.

Mentions: A PCoA analysis was conducted to determine differences among the degrader communities of the sugarcane stem, leaf, and rhizosphere samples from these fields (Fig. 7). The community compositions from the stem, leaf, and rhizosphere were distinct (AMOVA, P = 0.041); however, no significant difference was observed between the stem and rhizosphere (P = 0.095), the leaf and rhizosphere (P = 0.087), or the stem and leaf (P = 0.211). A distinct separation was observed (P = 0.041) between the above-ground parts of the plant (stem and leaf) and the rhizosphere. Types 4 and 5 were mainly found in stem and leaf samples while Type 8 was found at a high frequency in the rhizosphere. The degrader communities of the above-ground parts of the plant and the rhizosphere were distinguishable, albeit several identical types of degraders were isolated from the different niches, namely the plant and rhizosphere.


Insecticide-degrading Burkholderia symbionts of the stinkbug naturally occupy various environments of sugarcane fields in a Southeast island of Japan.

Tago K, Okubo T, Itoh H, Kikuchi Y, Hori T, Sato Y, Nagayama A, Hayashi K, Ikeda S, Hayatsu M - Microbes Environ. (2014)

PCoA plots derived from pairwise distances between the communities of degraders in sugarcane stem (open squares), leaf (grey triangles), and rhizosphere (black diamonds) samples.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356461&req=5

f7-30_29: PCoA plots derived from pairwise distances between the communities of degraders in sugarcane stem (open squares), leaf (grey triangles), and rhizosphere (black diamonds) samples.
Mentions: A PCoA analysis was conducted to determine differences among the degrader communities of the sugarcane stem, leaf, and rhizosphere samples from these fields (Fig. 7). The community compositions from the stem, leaf, and rhizosphere were distinct (AMOVA, P = 0.041); however, no significant difference was observed between the stem and rhizosphere (P = 0.095), the leaf and rhizosphere (P = 0.087), or the stem and leaf (P = 0.211). A distinct separation was observed (P = 0.041) between the above-ground parts of the plant (stem and leaf) and the rhizosphere. Types 4 and 5 were mainly found in stem and leaf samples while Type 8 was found at a high frequency in the rhizosphere. The degrader communities of the above-ground parts of the plant and the rhizosphere were distinguishable, albeit several identical types of degraders were isolated from the different niches, namely the plant and rhizosphere.

Bottom Line: Their density was lower in the plant sections than in the rhizosphere.Our results confirmed that plants and the rhizosphere constituted environmental reservoirs for stinkbug symbiotic degraders.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the composition and abundance of the symbiotic fenitrothion degraders of Burkholderia species in farmers' fields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Biofunction Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences.

ABSTRACT
The stinkbug Cavelerius saccharivorus, which harbors Burkholderia species capable of degrading the organophosphorus insecticide, fenitrothion, has been identified on a Japanese island in farmers' sugarcane fields that have been exposed to fenitrothion. A clearer understanding of the ecology of the symbiotic fenitrothion degraders of Burkholderia species in a free-living environment is vital for advancing our knowledge on the establishment of degrader-stinkbug symbiosis. In the present study, we analyzed the composition and abundance of degraders in sugarcane fields on the island. Degraders were recovered from field samples without an enrichment culture procedure. Degrader densities in the furrow soil in fields varied due to differences in insecticide treatment histories. Over 99% of the 659 isolated degraders belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The strains related to the stinkbug symbiotic group predominated among the degraders, indicating a selection for this group in response to fenitrothion. Degraders were also isolated from sugarcane stems, leaves, and rhizosphere in fields that were continuously exposed to fenitrothion. Their density was lower in the plant sections than in the rhizosphere. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that most of the degraders from the plants and rhizosphere clustered with the stinkbug symbiotic group, and some were identical to the midgut symbionts of C. saccharivorus collected from the same field. Our results confirmed that plants and the rhizosphere constituted environmental reservoirs for stinkbug symbiotic degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the composition and abundance of the symbiotic fenitrothion degraders of Burkholderia species in farmers' fields.

Show MeSH