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Population dynamics of cyanomyovirus in a tropical eutrophic reservoir.

Yeo BH, Gin KY - Microbes Environ. (2014)

Bottom Line: However, the sequences in this study were generally found to be more closely related to the g20 sequences of freshwaters and brackish waters than those from marine environments.The rarefaction curves and Chao 1 indices from this study showed that the diversity of the cyanomyovirus community was greater during the Inter-monsoon periods than the Southwest and Northeast Monsoons.A few seasonal changes in the taxa were observed: (i) Cluster ζ was absent during the Southwest Monsoon, and (ii) most of the samples fell into Group 3 in the PCA score plot during the Northeast Monsoon, and the fraction of Cluster ɛ increased significantly.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University.

ABSTRACT
Samples from three stations in Kranji Reservoir, Singapore (n = 21) were collected and analyzed for cyanomyovirus abundance and diversity. A total of 73 different g20 (viral capsid assembly protein genes) amino acid sequences were obtained from this study. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 73 segments were distributed in six major clusters (α to ζ), with four unique subclusters, which were identified as KRM-I, KRM-II, KRM-III, and KRM-IV. The cyanophage community in Kranji Reservoir exhibited a large degree of diversity; the clones obtained in this study showed similarities to those from many different environments, including oceans, lakes, bays, and paddy floodwater, as well as clones from paddy field soils. However, the sequences in this study were generally found to be more closely related to the g20 sequences of freshwaters and brackish waters than those from marine environments. The rarefaction curves and Chao 1 indices from this study showed that the diversity of the cyanomyovirus community was greater during the Inter-monsoon periods than the Southwest and Northeast Monsoons. A few seasonal changes in the taxa were observed: (i) Cluster ζ was absent during the Southwest Monsoon, and (ii) most of the samples fell into Group 3 in the PCA score plot during the Northeast Monsoon, and the fraction of Cluster ɛ increased significantly.

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PCA ordination plot of variables for chlorophyll-a (Chl), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, Secchi depth, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The first component (PC1) explained 69.2% of the data variance and was mainly defined by Chl-a, TSS, turbidity, and Secchi depth. The second component (PC2) was mainly defined by TN and TP and explained 17.2% of the data variance.
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f2-30_12: PCA ordination plot of variables for chlorophyll-a (Chl), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, Secchi depth, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The first component (PC1) explained 69.2% of the data variance and was mainly defined by Chl-a, TSS, turbidity, and Secchi depth. The second component (PC2) was mainly defined by TN and TP and explained 17.2% of the data variance.

Mentions: PCA was performed using 6 variables based on 21 complete data sets. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) together with Bartlett’s test of Sphericity were used to check the suitability of the analysis. The value of KMO was 0.728 (> 0.6) and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity was significant (P < 0.0005), showing that the analysis was appropriate (18). Fig. 2 shows the PCA ordination plot on which the first component (PC1=69.2%) and second component (PC2 = 17.2%) accounted for 86.4% of the data variation. PC1 was mainly defined by phytoplankton biomass-related variables including chlorophyll-a, TSS, turbidity, and Secchi depth. PC2 was mainly influenced by nutrient (TN and TP).


Population dynamics of cyanomyovirus in a tropical eutrophic reservoir.

Yeo BH, Gin KY - Microbes Environ. (2014)

PCA ordination plot of variables for chlorophyll-a (Chl), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, Secchi depth, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The first component (PC1) explained 69.2% of the data variance and was mainly defined by Chl-a, TSS, turbidity, and Secchi depth. The second component (PC2) was mainly defined by TN and TP and explained 17.2% of the data variance.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356459&req=5

f2-30_12: PCA ordination plot of variables for chlorophyll-a (Chl), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, Secchi depth, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The first component (PC1) explained 69.2% of the data variance and was mainly defined by Chl-a, TSS, turbidity, and Secchi depth. The second component (PC2) was mainly defined by TN and TP and explained 17.2% of the data variance.
Mentions: PCA was performed using 6 variables based on 21 complete data sets. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) together with Bartlett’s test of Sphericity were used to check the suitability of the analysis. The value of KMO was 0.728 (> 0.6) and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity was significant (P < 0.0005), showing that the analysis was appropriate (18). Fig. 2 shows the PCA ordination plot on which the first component (PC1=69.2%) and second component (PC2 = 17.2%) accounted for 86.4% of the data variation. PC1 was mainly defined by phytoplankton biomass-related variables including chlorophyll-a, TSS, turbidity, and Secchi depth. PC2 was mainly influenced by nutrient (TN and TP).

Bottom Line: However, the sequences in this study were generally found to be more closely related to the g20 sequences of freshwaters and brackish waters than those from marine environments.The rarefaction curves and Chao 1 indices from this study showed that the diversity of the cyanomyovirus community was greater during the Inter-monsoon periods than the Southwest and Northeast Monsoons.A few seasonal changes in the taxa were observed: (i) Cluster ζ was absent during the Southwest Monsoon, and (ii) most of the samples fell into Group 3 in the PCA score plot during the Northeast Monsoon, and the fraction of Cluster ɛ increased significantly.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University.

ABSTRACT
Samples from three stations in Kranji Reservoir, Singapore (n = 21) were collected and analyzed for cyanomyovirus abundance and diversity. A total of 73 different g20 (viral capsid assembly protein genes) amino acid sequences were obtained from this study. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 73 segments were distributed in six major clusters (α to ζ), with four unique subclusters, which were identified as KRM-I, KRM-II, KRM-III, and KRM-IV. The cyanophage community in Kranji Reservoir exhibited a large degree of diversity; the clones obtained in this study showed similarities to those from many different environments, including oceans, lakes, bays, and paddy floodwater, as well as clones from paddy field soils. However, the sequences in this study were generally found to be more closely related to the g20 sequences of freshwaters and brackish waters than those from marine environments. The rarefaction curves and Chao 1 indices from this study showed that the diversity of the cyanomyovirus community was greater during the Inter-monsoon periods than the Southwest and Northeast Monsoons. A few seasonal changes in the taxa were observed: (i) Cluster ζ was absent during the Southwest Monsoon, and (ii) most of the samples fell into Group 3 in the PCA score plot during the Northeast Monsoon, and the fraction of Cluster ɛ increased significantly.

Show MeSH