Limits...
Reconceptualizing anhedonia: novel perspectives on balancing the pleasure networks in the human brain.

Rømer Thomsen K, Whybrow PC, Kringelbach ML - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous scientific analysis.Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning.Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of conscious liking seem surprisingly intact.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN), University of Aarhus Aarhus, Denmark ; Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford Oxford, UK ; Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, School of Business and Social Sciences, University of Aarhus Aarhus, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, has been shown to be a critical feature of a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous scientific analysis. New insights from affective neuroscience hold considerable promise in improving our understanding of anhedonia and for providing useful objective behavioral measures to complement traditional self-report measures, potentially leading to better diagnoses and novel treatments. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning. Based on this framework we propose to conceptualize anhedonia as impairments in some or all of these processes, thereby departing from the longstanding view of anhedonia as solely reduced subjective experience of pleasure. We discuss how deficits in each of the reward components can lead to different expressions, or subtypes, of anhedonia affording novel ways of measurement. Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of conscious liking seem surprisingly intact. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that anhedonia is heterogeneous across psychiatric disorders, depending on which parts of the pleasure networks are most affected. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment of anhedonia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pleasure cycle. The brain needs to optimize resource allocation for survival and individuals are limited in the number of concurrent behaviors. Survival depends on the engagement with rewards and typically follows a cyclical time course common to many everyday moments of positive affect. Within this cycle rewards act as motivational magnets to initiate, sustain and switch state. The cyclical processing of rewards has classically been proposed to be associated with appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases (Sherrington, 1906; Craig, 1918). Research has demonstrated that this processing is supported by multiple brain networks and processes, which crucially involves liking (the core reactions to hedonic impact), wanting (motivational processing of incentive salience), and learning (typically Pavlovian or instrumental associations and cognitive representations) (Berridge and Kringelbach, 2013). These components wax and wane during the pleasure cycle and can co-occur at any time. Importantly, however, wanting processing tends to dominate the appetitive phase, while liking processing dominates the consummatory phase. In contrast, learning can happen throughout the cycle. Here we propose that anhedonia can be conceptualized as specific deficits within this pleasure cycle. Note that a very few rewards might possibly lack a satiety phase (suggested candidates for brief or missing satiety phase have included money, some abstract rewards and some drug and brain stimulation rewards that activate dopamine systems rather directly).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356228&req=5

Figure 1: Pleasure cycle. The brain needs to optimize resource allocation for survival and individuals are limited in the number of concurrent behaviors. Survival depends on the engagement with rewards and typically follows a cyclical time course common to many everyday moments of positive affect. Within this cycle rewards act as motivational magnets to initiate, sustain and switch state. The cyclical processing of rewards has classically been proposed to be associated with appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases (Sherrington, 1906; Craig, 1918). Research has demonstrated that this processing is supported by multiple brain networks and processes, which crucially involves liking (the core reactions to hedonic impact), wanting (motivational processing of incentive salience), and learning (typically Pavlovian or instrumental associations and cognitive representations) (Berridge and Kringelbach, 2013). These components wax and wane during the pleasure cycle and can co-occur at any time. Importantly, however, wanting processing tends to dominate the appetitive phase, while liking processing dominates the consummatory phase. In contrast, learning can happen throughout the cycle. Here we propose that anhedonia can be conceptualized as specific deficits within this pleasure cycle. Note that a very few rewards might possibly lack a satiety phase (suggested candidates for brief or missing satiety phase have included money, some abstract rewards and some drug and brain stimulation rewards that activate dopamine systems rather directly).

Mentions: In contrast, the scientific study of hedonia (derived from the ancient Greek word for pleasure: hedone from the sweet taste of honey, hedus) has undergone substantial progress over the last twenty years. In particular, hedonia research has led to the important discovery, that reward consists of multiple sub-components and processes of wanting, liking and learning that relate to the appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases of the pleasure cycle (Robinson and Berridge, 1993, 2003; Berridge and Kringelbach, 2008). The processing of rewards during the pleasure cycle allows individuals to optimize resource allocation for survival (see Figure 1). In this review we use the terms pleasure networks and pleasure system for the brain networks subserving reward processes to underline the importance of pleasure in promoting survival.


Reconceptualizing anhedonia: novel perspectives on balancing the pleasure networks in the human brain.

Rømer Thomsen K, Whybrow PC, Kringelbach ML - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Pleasure cycle. The brain needs to optimize resource allocation for survival and individuals are limited in the number of concurrent behaviors. Survival depends on the engagement with rewards and typically follows a cyclical time course common to many everyday moments of positive affect. Within this cycle rewards act as motivational magnets to initiate, sustain and switch state. The cyclical processing of rewards has classically been proposed to be associated with appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases (Sherrington, 1906; Craig, 1918). Research has demonstrated that this processing is supported by multiple brain networks and processes, which crucially involves liking (the core reactions to hedonic impact), wanting (motivational processing of incentive salience), and learning (typically Pavlovian or instrumental associations and cognitive representations) (Berridge and Kringelbach, 2013). These components wax and wane during the pleasure cycle and can co-occur at any time. Importantly, however, wanting processing tends to dominate the appetitive phase, while liking processing dominates the consummatory phase. In contrast, learning can happen throughout the cycle. Here we propose that anhedonia can be conceptualized as specific deficits within this pleasure cycle. Note that a very few rewards might possibly lack a satiety phase (suggested candidates for brief or missing satiety phase have included money, some abstract rewards and some drug and brain stimulation rewards that activate dopamine systems rather directly).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356228&req=5

Figure 1: Pleasure cycle. The brain needs to optimize resource allocation for survival and individuals are limited in the number of concurrent behaviors. Survival depends on the engagement with rewards and typically follows a cyclical time course common to many everyday moments of positive affect. Within this cycle rewards act as motivational magnets to initiate, sustain and switch state. The cyclical processing of rewards has classically been proposed to be associated with appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases (Sherrington, 1906; Craig, 1918). Research has demonstrated that this processing is supported by multiple brain networks and processes, which crucially involves liking (the core reactions to hedonic impact), wanting (motivational processing of incentive salience), and learning (typically Pavlovian or instrumental associations and cognitive representations) (Berridge and Kringelbach, 2013). These components wax and wane during the pleasure cycle and can co-occur at any time. Importantly, however, wanting processing tends to dominate the appetitive phase, while liking processing dominates the consummatory phase. In contrast, learning can happen throughout the cycle. Here we propose that anhedonia can be conceptualized as specific deficits within this pleasure cycle. Note that a very few rewards might possibly lack a satiety phase (suggested candidates for brief or missing satiety phase have included money, some abstract rewards and some drug and brain stimulation rewards that activate dopamine systems rather directly).
Mentions: In contrast, the scientific study of hedonia (derived from the ancient Greek word for pleasure: hedone from the sweet taste of honey, hedus) has undergone substantial progress over the last twenty years. In particular, hedonia research has led to the important discovery, that reward consists of multiple sub-components and processes of wanting, liking and learning that relate to the appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases of the pleasure cycle (Robinson and Berridge, 1993, 2003; Berridge and Kringelbach, 2008). The processing of rewards during the pleasure cycle allows individuals to optimize resource allocation for survival (see Figure 1). In this review we use the terms pleasure networks and pleasure system for the brain networks subserving reward processes to underline the importance of pleasure in promoting survival.

Bottom Line: Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous scientific analysis.Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning.Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of conscious liking seem surprisingly intact.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN), University of Aarhus Aarhus, Denmark ; Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford Oxford, UK ; Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, School of Business and Social Sciences, University of Aarhus Aarhus, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, has been shown to be a critical feature of a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous scientific analysis. New insights from affective neuroscience hold considerable promise in improving our understanding of anhedonia and for providing useful objective behavioral measures to complement traditional self-report measures, potentially leading to better diagnoses and novel treatments. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning. Based on this framework we propose to conceptualize anhedonia as impairments in some or all of these processes, thereby departing from the longstanding view of anhedonia as solely reduced subjective experience of pleasure. We discuss how deficits in each of the reward components can lead to different expressions, or subtypes, of anhedonia affording novel ways of measurement. Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of conscious liking seem surprisingly intact. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that anhedonia is heterogeneous across psychiatric disorders, depending on which parts of the pleasure networks are most affected. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment of anhedonia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus