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The present situation and towards the prevention and control of neurocysticercosis on the tropical island, Bali, Indonesia.

Wandra T, Swastika K, Dharmawan NS, Purba IE, Sudarmaja IM, Yoshida T, Sako Y, Okamoto M, Eka Diarthini NL, Sri Laksemi DA, Yanagida T, Nakao M, Ito A - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: Neurocysticercosis (NCC), which is caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, was common in Bali, Indonesia until the early 1990s.However, improved education on hygiene and sanitation, a move to keeping pigs indoors, and improvement of economic and living conditions have substantially reduced the occurrence of NCC in Bali.In response to this continued area of high infection, a one-day workshop was convened to discuss how to prevent and control this potentially lethal zoonotic parasitic infection in Bali.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sari Mutiara Indonesia University, Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. tony_wdr2009@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), which is caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, was common in Bali, Indonesia until the early 1990s. However, improved education on hygiene and sanitation, a move to keeping pigs indoors, and improvement of economic and living conditions have substantially reduced the occurrence of NCC in Bali. Since 2011, T. solium tapeworm carriers (T. solium taeniasis) and heavily infected pigs and dogs have exclusively been detected from villages in mountainous regions of northeastern Bali where NCC and ocular cysticercosis (OCC) cases have also been identified. In response to this continued area of high infection, a one-day workshop was convened to discuss how to prevent and control this potentially lethal zoonotic parasitic infection in Bali. This review presents an overview of the current status of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Indonesia and proposes a strategy for the prevention and control of this zoonosis in Bali.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Landscape of the eastern slope of Mt. Agung (a, b) and water tanks for dry season (c, d, e). Dry season in September 2014 (a) and rainy season in January 2012 (b). Right half of the mountain (a): the eastern slope is completely brown. Southern slope in the left half is better in green, Western slope is completely green for all seasons (not shown).
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Fig5: Landscape of the eastern slope of Mt. Agung (a, b) and water tanks for dry season (c, d, e). Dry season in September 2014 (a) and rainy season in January 2012 (b). Right half of the mountain (a): the eastern slope is completely brown. Southern slope in the left half is better in green, Western slope is completely green for all seasons (not shown).

Mentions: In December 2010, a case of ocular cysticercosis (OCC) was confirmed in a 9-year-old girl (Figure 1) from a remote village in the Kubu sub-district of Karangasem (Figure 5) [90]. The village is located on the eastern slope of Bali’s highest mountain, Mt. Agung (altitude 3,132 m). In highly endemic areas in other countries, it is not so easy to detect tapeworm carriers as found in this small area (Table 1) [11,93-96]. A field survey carried out in January 2011 in the patient’s village and neighbouring villages revealed three individuals with T. solium taeniasis (Table 1) [90,93]. Two cases (a 4-year-old girl and a 38-year-old man) were from the same village where the original OCC case was identified. The third case (35-year-old woman) was from a neighbouring village. Table 1 summarizes human taeniasis prevalence data collected in Karangasem (Kubu sub-district) from January 2011 to September 2014 and Gianyar (Sukawati sub-district) from 2002 to 2014. In total, six T. solium taeniasis cases (6/265, 2.26%) were detected in 2013, and additional two cases (2/138, 1.45%) were identified in 2014 in Karangasem (Swastika et al. unpublished).Figure 5


The present situation and towards the prevention and control of neurocysticercosis on the tropical island, Bali, Indonesia.

Wandra T, Swastika K, Dharmawan NS, Purba IE, Sudarmaja IM, Yoshida T, Sako Y, Okamoto M, Eka Diarthini NL, Sri Laksemi DA, Yanagida T, Nakao M, Ito A - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Landscape of the eastern slope of Mt. Agung (a, b) and water tanks for dry season (c, d, e). Dry season in September 2014 (a) and rainy season in January 2012 (b). Right half of the mountain (a): the eastern slope is completely brown. Southern slope in the left half is better in green, Western slope is completely green for all seasons (not shown).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356148&req=5

Fig5: Landscape of the eastern slope of Mt. Agung (a, b) and water tanks for dry season (c, d, e). Dry season in September 2014 (a) and rainy season in January 2012 (b). Right half of the mountain (a): the eastern slope is completely brown. Southern slope in the left half is better in green, Western slope is completely green for all seasons (not shown).
Mentions: In December 2010, a case of ocular cysticercosis (OCC) was confirmed in a 9-year-old girl (Figure 1) from a remote village in the Kubu sub-district of Karangasem (Figure 5) [90]. The village is located on the eastern slope of Bali’s highest mountain, Mt. Agung (altitude 3,132 m). In highly endemic areas in other countries, it is not so easy to detect tapeworm carriers as found in this small area (Table 1) [11,93-96]. A field survey carried out in January 2011 in the patient’s village and neighbouring villages revealed three individuals with T. solium taeniasis (Table 1) [90,93]. Two cases (a 4-year-old girl and a 38-year-old man) were from the same village where the original OCC case was identified. The third case (35-year-old woman) was from a neighbouring village. Table 1 summarizes human taeniasis prevalence data collected in Karangasem (Kubu sub-district) from January 2011 to September 2014 and Gianyar (Sukawati sub-district) from 2002 to 2014. In total, six T. solium taeniasis cases (6/265, 2.26%) were detected in 2013, and additional two cases (2/138, 1.45%) were identified in 2014 in Karangasem (Swastika et al. unpublished).Figure 5

Bottom Line: Neurocysticercosis (NCC), which is caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, was common in Bali, Indonesia until the early 1990s.However, improved education on hygiene and sanitation, a move to keeping pigs indoors, and improvement of economic and living conditions have substantially reduced the occurrence of NCC in Bali.In response to this continued area of high infection, a one-day workshop was convened to discuss how to prevent and control this potentially lethal zoonotic parasitic infection in Bali.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sari Mutiara Indonesia University, Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. tony_wdr2009@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), which is caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, was common in Bali, Indonesia until the early 1990s. However, improved education on hygiene and sanitation, a move to keeping pigs indoors, and improvement of economic and living conditions have substantially reduced the occurrence of NCC in Bali. Since 2011, T. solium tapeworm carriers (T. solium taeniasis) and heavily infected pigs and dogs have exclusively been detected from villages in mountainous regions of northeastern Bali where NCC and ocular cysticercosis (OCC) cases have also been identified. In response to this continued area of high infection, a one-day workshop was convened to discuss how to prevent and control this potentially lethal zoonotic parasitic infection in Bali. This review presents an overview of the current status of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Indonesia and proposes a strategy for the prevention and control of this zoonosis in Bali.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus