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Biocompatible ι-carrageenan-γ-maghemite nanocomposite for biomedical applications - synthesis, characterization and in vitro anticancer efficacy.

Raman M, Devi V, Doble M - J Nanobiotechnology (2015)

Bottom Line: Results suggested that iota carrageenans have electrostatically entrapped the maghemite nanoparticles in their sulfate groups.Biocompatibility of the nanocomposite (at different concentrations) against normal cell lines (HEK-293 and L6) was confirmed by MTT assay.Cell apoptosis here is induced by following the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway, combined with downregulation of the expression levels of mRNA of XIAP and PARP-1 and upregulation of caspase3, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioengineering and Drug design Lab, Department of Biotechnology, IIT-Madras, Chennai, 600036, India. mayaraman@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Carrageenans are naturally occurring hydrophilic, polyanionic polysaccharide bioploymers with wide application in pharmaceutical industries for controlled drug delivery. Magnetic nanoparticles with their exceptional properties enable them to be an ideal candidate for the production of functional nanostructures, thus facilitating them for biomedical applications. The development of novel nanocomposite by coupling the synergistic effects of the sulfated polysaccharide (iota carrageenan) and a magnetic nanoparticle (maghemite) may offer new interesting applications in drug delivery and cancer therapy. The nanocomposite was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder XRD to highlight the possible interaction between the two components. Biocompatibility and the anticancer efficacy of the nanocomposite were assayed and analysed in vitro.

Results: Results suggested that iota carrageenans have electrostatically entrapped the maghemite nanoparticles in their sulfate groups. Biocompatibility of the nanocomposite (at different concentrations) against normal cell lines (HEK-293 and L6) was confirmed by MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 and 7-AAD staining studies under fluorescent microscopy revealed that the nanocomposite is able to induce appoptosis as the mode of cell death in human colon cancer cell line (HCT116). Cell apoptosis here is induced by following the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway, combined with downregulation of the expression levels of mRNA of XIAP and PARP-1 and upregulation of caspase3, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL.

Conclusions: This novel nanocomposite is biocompatible with potential properties to serve in magnet aided targeted drug delivery and cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

FTIR spectrum of (A)ι-car andι-car-γ-Fe2O3nanocomposite (B) magnified lower finger print region of FTIR spectrum ofι-car andι-car-γ-Fe2O3nanocomposite.
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Fig2: FTIR spectrum of (A)ι-car andι-car-γ-Fe2O3nanocomposite (B) magnified lower finger print region of FTIR spectrum ofι-car andι-car-γ-Fe2O3nanocomposite.

Mentions: The FTIR bands specific to ι-car are observed in both the samples (Figure 2, Table 1), with few exceptions in the lower fingerprint region (800–400 cm−1). Broad bands are observed between 3400–3000 cm−1 corresponding to the hydroxyl groups in the polysaccharide which is responsible for the hydrophilic nature of the carrageenan [28]. The bands between 2900–2700 cm−1 are assigned to the asymmetrical stretching vibrations in -CH2 of the galactose units [28]. The characteristic band in the 1210–1260 cm−1 region was attributed to the sulfate esters that were present in both, confirming the retention of the sulfation in the latter [29]. The peak at 1070 cm−1 is attributed to glycosidic linkages in the polysaccharides [29]. Presence of 3, 6-anhydro-D-galactopyranose units in both was confirmed from the presence of bands at 894 and 917 cm−1, and that of D-galactopyranose-4-sulfate (G4S) units by the presence of bands at 848 and 846 cm−1. The band specific to ι-car appears at 805 cm−1,which indicates the presence of sulfate group at C2-position in the 3, 6-anhydrogalactose unit (DA2S) [30]. This band however shifts to lower wavenumbers in the spectrum of the nanocomposite. This as well as the shift observed at 917 cm−1 in the nanocomposite may be due to the interaction of maghemite nanoparticles with the sulfate ester group in the 3, 6- anhydrogalactose-2-sulfate units. The appearance of sharp intense peak at 417 cm−1 corresponds to Fe-O stretch (Figure 2B) [31]. This could possibly be due to the impregnation of iron nanoparticles in ι-car mostly by electrostatic interaction with the sulfate groups of 3, 6-anhydrogalactose-2-sulfate units [27].Figure 2


Biocompatible ι-carrageenan-γ-maghemite nanocomposite for biomedical applications - synthesis, characterization and in vitro anticancer efficacy.

Raman M, Devi V, Doble M - J Nanobiotechnology (2015)

FTIR spectrum of (A)ι-car andι-car-γ-Fe2O3nanocomposite (B) magnified lower finger print region of FTIR spectrum ofι-car andι-car-γ-Fe2O3nanocomposite.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356133&req=5

Fig2: FTIR spectrum of (A)ι-car andι-car-γ-Fe2O3nanocomposite (B) magnified lower finger print region of FTIR spectrum ofι-car andι-car-γ-Fe2O3nanocomposite.
Mentions: The FTIR bands specific to ι-car are observed in both the samples (Figure 2, Table 1), with few exceptions in the lower fingerprint region (800–400 cm−1). Broad bands are observed between 3400–3000 cm−1 corresponding to the hydroxyl groups in the polysaccharide which is responsible for the hydrophilic nature of the carrageenan [28]. The bands between 2900–2700 cm−1 are assigned to the asymmetrical stretching vibrations in -CH2 of the galactose units [28]. The characteristic band in the 1210–1260 cm−1 region was attributed to the sulfate esters that were present in both, confirming the retention of the sulfation in the latter [29]. The peak at 1070 cm−1 is attributed to glycosidic linkages in the polysaccharides [29]. Presence of 3, 6-anhydro-D-galactopyranose units in both was confirmed from the presence of bands at 894 and 917 cm−1, and that of D-galactopyranose-4-sulfate (G4S) units by the presence of bands at 848 and 846 cm−1. The band specific to ι-car appears at 805 cm−1,which indicates the presence of sulfate group at C2-position in the 3, 6-anhydrogalactose unit (DA2S) [30]. This band however shifts to lower wavenumbers in the spectrum of the nanocomposite. This as well as the shift observed at 917 cm−1 in the nanocomposite may be due to the interaction of maghemite nanoparticles with the sulfate ester group in the 3, 6- anhydrogalactose-2-sulfate units. The appearance of sharp intense peak at 417 cm−1 corresponds to Fe-O stretch (Figure 2B) [31]. This could possibly be due to the impregnation of iron nanoparticles in ι-car mostly by electrostatic interaction with the sulfate groups of 3, 6-anhydrogalactose-2-sulfate units [27].Figure 2

Bottom Line: Results suggested that iota carrageenans have electrostatically entrapped the maghemite nanoparticles in their sulfate groups.Biocompatibility of the nanocomposite (at different concentrations) against normal cell lines (HEK-293 and L6) was confirmed by MTT assay.Cell apoptosis here is induced by following the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway, combined with downregulation of the expression levels of mRNA of XIAP and PARP-1 and upregulation of caspase3, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioengineering and Drug design Lab, Department of Biotechnology, IIT-Madras, Chennai, 600036, India. mayaraman@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Carrageenans are naturally occurring hydrophilic, polyanionic polysaccharide bioploymers with wide application in pharmaceutical industries for controlled drug delivery. Magnetic nanoparticles with their exceptional properties enable them to be an ideal candidate for the production of functional nanostructures, thus facilitating them for biomedical applications. The development of novel nanocomposite by coupling the synergistic effects of the sulfated polysaccharide (iota carrageenan) and a magnetic nanoparticle (maghemite) may offer new interesting applications in drug delivery and cancer therapy. The nanocomposite was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder XRD to highlight the possible interaction between the two components. Biocompatibility and the anticancer efficacy of the nanocomposite were assayed and analysed in vitro.

Results: Results suggested that iota carrageenans have electrostatically entrapped the maghemite nanoparticles in their sulfate groups. Biocompatibility of the nanocomposite (at different concentrations) against normal cell lines (HEK-293 and L6) was confirmed by MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 and 7-AAD staining studies under fluorescent microscopy revealed that the nanocomposite is able to induce appoptosis as the mode of cell death in human colon cancer cell line (HCT116). Cell apoptosis here is induced by following the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway, combined with downregulation of the expression levels of mRNA of XIAP and PARP-1 and upregulation of caspase3, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL.

Conclusions: This novel nanocomposite is biocompatible with potential properties to serve in magnet aided targeted drug delivery and cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus