Limits...
Papillomaviruses: Viral evolution, cancer and evolutionary medicine.

Bravo IG, Félez-Sánchez M - Evol Med Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a numerous family of small dsDNA viruses infecting virtually all mammals.Most PVs are part and parcel of the skin microbiota.Anti-PVs vaccines elicit protection against infection, induce cross-protection against closely related viruses and result in herd immunity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Infections and Cancer Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain; Bellvitge Institute of Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain Infections and Cancer Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain; Bellvitge Institute of Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain Infections and Cancer Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain; Bellvitge Institute of Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain igbravo@iconcologia.net.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fraction of anogenital cancers caused by HPVs infections preventable through vaccination. Data should be read as follows, with vaginal cancer as an example: every year, 9,000 new vaginal cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, and 74% of them are associated to infection by HPVs. This is known as PAF, Population Attributable Fraction. From these, 77.1% are associated to HPV16 or HPV18, and could be prevented using the bivalent or the quadrivalent vaccine; 0.9% are associated to HPV6 or HPV11, and could be prevented by the quadrivalent vaccine; 13.7% of the rest of HPV-related cases are associated to HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52 and/or HPV58, and could be prevented using the nonavalent vaccine; the remaining 8.3% of the vaginal cancer cases are not targetted by any current vaccine. Data extracted from the Catalan Institute of Oncology HPV Information Center, last queried on June 2014 (http://www.hpvcentre.net/)
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356112&req=5

eov003-F6: Fraction of anogenital cancers caused by HPVs infections preventable through vaccination. Data should be read as follows, with vaginal cancer as an example: every year, 9,000 new vaginal cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, and 74% of them are associated to infection by HPVs. This is known as PAF, Population Attributable Fraction. From these, 77.1% are associated to HPV16 or HPV18, and could be prevented using the bivalent or the quadrivalent vaccine; 0.9% are associated to HPV6 or HPV11, and could be prevented by the quadrivalent vaccine; 13.7% of the rest of HPV-related cases are associated to HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52 and/or HPV58, and could be prevented using the nonavalent vaccine; the remaining 8.3% of the vaginal cancer cases are not targetted by any current vaccine. Data extracted from the Catalan Institute of Oncology HPV Information Center, last queried on June 2014 (http://www.hpvcentre.net/)

Mentions: Two prophylactic HPV vaccines are currently available: a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV16 and HPV18 [140], and a quadrivalent vaccine additionally targeting HPV6 an HPV11 [141]. Both contain recombinant L1 proteins that autoassemble into hollow structures mimicking virions, called virus-like particles. An enhanced vaccine including virus-like particles from five additional targets—HPV31, 33, 45, 52 and 58—has just been licensed [142]. This vaccine is intended to prevent infection by HPVs responsible for the majority of anogenital cancers (Fig. 6), and it is envisioned that extending the repertoire of viruses in the formulation should suffice to cover eventual type replacement dynamics [143]. Despite their incomplete status, these pseudo-viral structures can elicit protective antibodies [144]. Indeed, immunization results in generation of high antibody titres in above 95% vaccinated individuals [140, 141]. Vaccination delivery of the viral antigens by intramuscular and the presence of adjuvant molecules acting as local immune modulators are possibly responsible for the very high level of seroconversion and for the high antibody titres compared with those elicited during natural infection [14]. Additionally, immunization results in partial cross protection against viruses not directly targeted by the vaccine formulation, essentially HPV31 and HPV45, close relatives of HPV16 and HPV18, respectively [145–147]. The strong immune response elicited through vaccination and the sexual transmission dynamics of infection predicts a strong herd immunity effect [148], compared with that induced by the limited immune response to natural infection [149]. Indeed, data on the decrease of incident cervical lesions and genital warts suggest that vaccination results in the establishment of a herd immunity effect in unvaccinated women and partly also in unvaccinated young men [146, 150, 151].Figure 6.


Papillomaviruses: Viral evolution, cancer and evolutionary medicine.

Bravo IG, Félez-Sánchez M - Evol Med Public Health (2015)

Fraction of anogenital cancers caused by HPVs infections preventable through vaccination. Data should be read as follows, with vaginal cancer as an example: every year, 9,000 new vaginal cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, and 74% of them are associated to infection by HPVs. This is known as PAF, Population Attributable Fraction. From these, 77.1% are associated to HPV16 or HPV18, and could be prevented using the bivalent or the quadrivalent vaccine; 0.9% are associated to HPV6 or HPV11, and could be prevented by the quadrivalent vaccine; 13.7% of the rest of HPV-related cases are associated to HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52 and/or HPV58, and could be prevented using the nonavalent vaccine; the remaining 8.3% of the vaginal cancer cases are not targetted by any current vaccine. Data extracted from the Catalan Institute of Oncology HPV Information Center, last queried on June 2014 (http://www.hpvcentre.net/)
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356112&req=5

eov003-F6: Fraction of anogenital cancers caused by HPVs infections preventable through vaccination. Data should be read as follows, with vaginal cancer as an example: every year, 9,000 new vaginal cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, and 74% of them are associated to infection by HPVs. This is known as PAF, Population Attributable Fraction. From these, 77.1% are associated to HPV16 or HPV18, and could be prevented using the bivalent or the quadrivalent vaccine; 0.9% are associated to HPV6 or HPV11, and could be prevented by the quadrivalent vaccine; 13.7% of the rest of HPV-related cases are associated to HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52 and/or HPV58, and could be prevented using the nonavalent vaccine; the remaining 8.3% of the vaginal cancer cases are not targetted by any current vaccine. Data extracted from the Catalan Institute of Oncology HPV Information Center, last queried on June 2014 (http://www.hpvcentre.net/)
Mentions: Two prophylactic HPV vaccines are currently available: a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV16 and HPV18 [140], and a quadrivalent vaccine additionally targeting HPV6 an HPV11 [141]. Both contain recombinant L1 proteins that autoassemble into hollow structures mimicking virions, called virus-like particles. An enhanced vaccine including virus-like particles from five additional targets—HPV31, 33, 45, 52 and 58—has just been licensed [142]. This vaccine is intended to prevent infection by HPVs responsible for the majority of anogenital cancers (Fig. 6), and it is envisioned that extending the repertoire of viruses in the formulation should suffice to cover eventual type replacement dynamics [143]. Despite their incomplete status, these pseudo-viral structures can elicit protective antibodies [144]. Indeed, immunization results in generation of high antibody titres in above 95% vaccinated individuals [140, 141]. Vaccination delivery of the viral antigens by intramuscular and the presence of adjuvant molecules acting as local immune modulators are possibly responsible for the very high level of seroconversion and for the high antibody titres compared with those elicited during natural infection [14]. Additionally, immunization results in partial cross protection against viruses not directly targeted by the vaccine formulation, essentially HPV31 and HPV45, close relatives of HPV16 and HPV18, respectively [145–147]. The strong immune response elicited through vaccination and the sexual transmission dynamics of infection predicts a strong herd immunity effect [148], compared with that induced by the limited immune response to natural infection [149]. Indeed, data on the decrease of incident cervical lesions and genital warts suggest that vaccination results in the establishment of a herd immunity effect in unvaccinated women and partly also in unvaccinated young men [146, 150, 151].Figure 6.

Bottom Line: Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a numerous family of small dsDNA viruses infecting virtually all mammals.Most PVs are part and parcel of the skin microbiota.Anti-PVs vaccines elicit protection against infection, induce cross-protection against closely related viruses and result in herd immunity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Infections and Cancer Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain; Bellvitge Institute of Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain Infections and Cancer Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain; Bellvitge Institute of Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain Infections and Cancer Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain; Bellvitge Institute of Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain igbravo@iconcologia.net.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus