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Phenotype and transcriptome analysis reveals chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis together influenced the leaf color formation in mutants of Anthurium andraeanum 'Sonate'.

Yang Y, Chen X, Xu B, Li Y, Ma Y, Wang G - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Knowledge of mechanisms in anthuriums to produce leaves with different shades of green would help to effectively select desirable traits.From the 27,539 (67.1%) unigenes with annotated functions, 858 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, consisting of 446 up-regulated genes and 412 down-regulated genes.And the possible formation pathway of leaf color mutant of A. andraeanum 'Sonate' is deduced based on our results.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Leaf color is one of the well-sought traits in breeding program for Anthurium andraeanum Lind. Knowledge of mechanisms in anthuriums to produce leaves with different shades of green would help to effectively select desirable traits. In this study, the micro- and ultra-structural and physiological features of leaves on wild type and leaf color mutants (dark green, rubescent, etiolated, albino) in A. andraeanum 'Sonate' were analyzed. Results show that chloroplasts of leaf color mutants exhibited abnormal morphology and distribution. Using next generation sequencing technology followed by de novo assembly, leaf transcriptomes comprising of 41,017 unigenes with an average sequence length of 768 bp were produced from wild type and rubescent mutant. From the 27,539 (67.1%) unigenes with annotated functions, 858 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, consisting of 446 up-regulated genes and 412 down-regulated genes. Genes that affect chloroplasts development and division, and chlorophyll biosynthesis were included in the down-regulated DEGs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis validated that the expression level of those genes was significantly lower in the rubescent, etiolated, and albino mutant compared to wild type plants, which concurs with the differences in micro- and ultra-structures and physiological features between these two types of plants. Conclusively, the leaf color formation is greatly affected by the activity of chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis. And the possible formation pathway of leaf color mutant of A. andraeanum 'Sonate' is deduced based on our results.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

COG classification of the annotated 102 DEGs. The capital letters in x-axis indicate the COG categories as listed on the right of the histogram and those on y-axis indicate the number of DEGs.
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Figure 8: COG classification of the annotated 102 DEGs. The capital letters in x-axis indicate the COG categories as listed on the right of the histogram and those on y-axis indicate the number of DEGs.

Mentions: All assembled unigenes were further annotated based on COG category to produce phylogenetic classification. In total, 10,701 (26.1%) unigenes were matched, and they were grouped into 24 functional categories (Figure S3). The main purpose of our study was to fully analyze the gene expression difference between the wild type and rubescent, so the analysis with COG focused on the DEGs. As a result, a total of 102 (11.9%) DEGs were assigned to 122 COG functional annotations, which were classified into 17 COG categories (Figure 8).


Phenotype and transcriptome analysis reveals chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis together influenced the leaf color formation in mutants of Anthurium andraeanum 'Sonate'.

Yang Y, Chen X, Xu B, Li Y, Ma Y, Wang G - Front Plant Sci (2015)

COG classification of the annotated 102 DEGs. The capital letters in x-axis indicate the COG categories as listed on the right of the histogram and those on y-axis indicate the number of DEGs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356079&req=5

Figure 8: COG classification of the annotated 102 DEGs. The capital letters in x-axis indicate the COG categories as listed on the right of the histogram and those on y-axis indicate the number of DEGs.
Mentions: All assembled unigenes were further annotated based on COG category to produce phylogenetic classification. In total, 10,701 (26.1%) unigenes were matched, and they were grouped into 24 functional categories (Figure S3). The main purpose of our study was to fully analyze the gene expression difference between the wild type and rubescent, so the analysis with COG focused on the DEGs. As a result, a total of 102 (11.9%) DEGs were assigned to 122 COG functional annotations, which were classified into 17 COG categories (Figure 8).

Bottom Line: Knowledge of mechanisms in anthuriums to produce leaves with different shades of green would help to effectively select desirable traits.From the 27,539 (67.1%) unigenes with annotated functions, 858 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, consisting of 446 up-regulated genes and 412 down-regulated genes.And the possible formation pathway of leaf color mutant of A. andraeanum 'Sonate' is deduced based on our results.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Leaf color is one of the well-sought traits in breeding program for Anthurium andraeanum Lind. Knowledge of mechanisms in anthuriums to produce leaves with different shades of green would help to effectively select desirable traits. In this study, the micro- and ultra-structural and physiological features of leaves on wild type and leaf color mutants (dark green, rubescent, etiolated, albino) in A. andraeanum 'Sonate' were analyzed. Results show that chloroplasts of leaf color mutants exhibited abnormal morphology and distribution. Using next generation sequencing technology followed by de novo assembly, leaf transcriptomes comprising of 41,017 unigenes with an average sequence length of 768 bp were produced from wild type and rubescent mutant. From the 27,539 (67.1%) unigenes with annotated functions, 858 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, consisting of 446 up-regulated genes and 412 down-regulated genes. Genes that affect chloroplasts development and division, and chlorophyll biosynthesis were included in the down-regulated DEGs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis validated that the expression level of those genes was significantly lower in the rubescent, etiolated, and albino mutant compared to wild type plants, which concurs with the differences in micro- and ultra-structures and physiological features between these two types of plants. Conclusively, the leaf color formation is greatly affected by the activity of chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis. And the possible formation pathway of leaf color mutant of A. andraeanum 'Sonate' is deduced based on our results.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus